Difference Between Electron and Proton (With Table)

Of all the existing substances, atoms are the building blocks. The nucleus, which is a part of an atom, nucleus further has two parts that are protons and neutrons. The electrons usually circle the nucleus in orbit. In fact, in addition to electrons and neutrons, there are some subatomic particles present in the nucleus.

Usually, in an atom, most of the space is free and is left empty. The two attractive forces between the nucleus that is positively charged and the negative ones that are the electrons, are responsible for maintaining the shape of the atom.

Electron vs Proton

The difference between electrons a proton is that a proton is just a subatomic substance or particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom, while electrons, on the other hand, are particles that are constantly revolving around the nucleus in orbit. In addition to electrons and neutrons, there are some subatomic particles present in the nucleus.

An electron has a negative electric charge and has the symbol an e. talking about the mass of an electron it is 9.1093×10 to the power -31 kg. This mass of electrons makes it the lightest particle of the subatomic. Electron was discovered for the first time in 1897 by J.J. Thompson. Although, the name to electron was given by Stoney.

Proton has a positive charge and is the subatomic particle in the nucleus. Proton is usually denoted by its first alphabet p. when the electron was discovered by scientists. They did not have any single idea about protons or even the presence of protons. A positively charges particle was discovered by Goldstein, and that particle was produced from gases. Now, these particles were given the name of anode rays.

Comparison Table Between Electron and Proton

Parameters of ComparisonElectronProton
DefinitionAn electron is a subatomic substance of the nucleus that revolves around it in orbit.Proton has a positive charge and is the subatomic particle in the nucleus.
Charge and massThe charge of an electron is -1, and its mass is 9.1093×10 to the power -31 kg.The charge of a proton is +1, and its mass is 1.6726×10 to the power -27 kg.
ReactionElectron is involved in chemical reactions.Proton is not usually involved in any sort of chemical reaction but might be involved in a nuclear reaction.
MovementsThe electron has a continuous movement around the nucleus in orbit.Proton does not move at all.
Location in atomThe electron is present around the nucleus.Proton is present in the atomic nucleus.

What is Electron?

Electrons are said to be the very first generation or substance of the lepton family, which is a family of particles. An electron has a negative electric charge and has the symbol an e. This mass of electrons makes it the lightest particle of the subatomic, and that mass is 9.1093×10 to the power -31 kg. J.J. Thompson was the person who discovered electrons for the very first time in the year 1897.

Its discovery leads to many explanations in electricity, chemistry and chemical bonding, magnetic properties, thermal activities, and many other important phenomena. In an orbital where they revolve around the nucleus, electron occurs in pair of electrons. Each of those pairs has two electrons, both of opposite spins. This arrangement of electrons in an orbital can be given an understandable configuration.

What is Proton?

Proton and neutron are jointly termed as nucleons, and both of thas have masses that are approximately equal to one atomic unit. In the nucleus of every single atom, one or even more than one photon is present. Now the number of protons in each and every nucleus cell is the property of every element that defines it. This is why each element has different atomic numbers because each and every element has its own unique number of protons.

Proton has a different charge to their mass ratio, unlike the electrons, and this depends on the amount of gas used. Finally, in 1917, after many different experiments by several scientists, Rutherford discovered the proton. The atomic number is the name given to denote the number of protons present in an atom. This is for the reason that atomic number is equal to the number of protons an element has in its own nucleus.

Main Differences Between Electron and Proton

  1. The main difference between electron and proton is that an electron is a subatomic substance of the nucleus that revolves around it in orbit, while a Proton has a positive charge and is the subatomic particle in the nucleus.
  2. The charge of an electron is -1, and its mass is 9.1093×10 to the power -31 kg, while the charge of a proton is +1, and its mass is 1.6726×10 to the power -27 kg.
  3. Electron is involved in chemical reactions, while Proton is not usually involved in any sort of chemical reaction but might be involved in a nuclear reaction.
  4. The electron has a continuous movement around the nucleus in orbit, but Proton does not move at all.
  5. Electron is present around the nucleus, while Proton is present in the atomic nucleus.

Conclusion

This now concludes that both electron and proton are parts of an atom. They have positive and negative charges. Both of them have different masses. The difference between electron and proton is that an electron is a subatomic substance of the nucleus that revolves around it in orbit, while a Proton has a positive charge and is the subatomic particle in the nucleus. The electrons usually circle the nucleus in orbit. In fact, in addition to electrons and neutrons, there are some subatomic particles present in the nucleus.

Proton is usually denoted by its first alphabet p. when the electron was discovered by scientists. They did not have any single idea about protons or even the presence of protons.

References

  1. https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:23085529
  2. https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.pc.37.100186.001015
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