Germs and bacteria are microorganisms that are not visible to the naked eye. Both of them are widely used terms in medicine and science. People often think that they are one and the same. However, this is not the case. Even though they are related to each other, there are various factors that make them different.
- Germs encompass many microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.
- Bacteria are single-celled organisms that can harm or benefit humans and other living things.
- Not all germs cause disease, and some bacteria play essential roles in human health, such as aiding digestion.
Germs vs Bacteria
Germs is a general term that refers to microscopic organisms that can cause disease, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Bacteria are a specific type of germ, a large group of single-celled organisms that live in every corner of Earth, both harmful and beneficial to humans.
Germs are formally known as pathogens and even infectious agents. They refer to any microscopic organism that holds the potential to cause disease in human beings. Sometimes, they can even transmit diseases from one person to another. Such organisms are generally parasitic and need a host to survive.
On the other hand, the term ‘bacteria’ refers to a single-celled organism that is found in almost every environment. It is one of the first living organisms to survive on Earth and has been around for quite a long time. Most bacteria are beneficial for humans, but certain ones called pathogenic bacteria do cause various diseases.
|Parameters of Comparison||Germs||Bacteria|
|Meaning||‘Germs’ is a blanket term for a wide variety of disease-causing microorganisms.||Bacteria are a specific kind of germ.|
|Nature||They are organisms that hold the potential of causing diseases in humans.||Most bacteria are beneficial to humans but some of them may cause diseases.|
|Nucleus||They may or not have a nucleus.||They always have a nucleus.|
|Reproduction||Germs require a host body to reproduce.||Bacteria can reproduce everywhere and do not particularly require a host.|
|Examples||Examples of germs include fungi, algae, viruses, prions, etc.||Bacteria are of one kind only but have different shapes.|
What are Germs?
The term ‘Germs’ is essentially a category for a wide variety of microscopic organisms. These creatures have the ability to cause diseases in human beings. They are also called pathogens or infectious agents. Their nature is generally parasitic, and they require a host to reproduce. Some examples of germs include fungi, algae, viruses, prions, etc.
Germs can survive in any kind of environment, be it air, soil, or water. They even live on the skin of humans and other animals. They tend to stick to surfaces and spread when different people come in contact with these surfaces. Other ways of spreading germs include touching another person, breathing air after someone coughs or sneezes and even from insect bites.
There are various ways in which one can protect themselves from these microorganisms. Some common techniques include washing hands often, avoiding meeting ill people, and practising food safety. Surfaces should be regularly disinfected to get rid of harmful germs.
People should even take precautions to ensure that they are not spreading germs themselves. For this, one should always cover their face while coughing and sneezing. Staying at home when down with an infectious illness is another safe practice. Through this, one can ensure that their loved ones are free from harm.
What are Bacteria?
Bacteria are specific kinds of germs that are, in most cases, beneficial for humans. However, some of them may even cause certain diseases. These organisms are generally between 0.15 to 700 micrometres long. They can survive and breed in any environment. Interestingly, they are one of the oldest inhabitants on earth.
Good bacteria play a vital role during the nutrient cycle of matter. They carry out the process of putrefaction for bodies that are decomposing. Some of these organisms also help in converting dissolved compounds into energy. This is beneficial in environments such as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents.
Meanwhile, bad or pathogenic bacteria can potentially cause diseases and illnesses in humans. They either attack the cells of a host directly or produce endotoxins that carry out the job. Sometimes, they even cause a powerful immune response in the cells of the host, causing them damage.
However, these pathogens can also be attacked by other pathogens at times. These attackers are certain viruses called bacteriophages or simply phages. They cause an infection in the bacteria, which leads to its death. Phages can even infect humans and animals. Moreover, they can even be infected by another phage!
Main Differences Between Germs and Bacteria
- ‘Germs’ is a blanket term for a wide variety of disease-causing microorganisms, whereas bacteria are a specific kind of germ.
- Germs are organisms that hold the potential to cause diseases in humans, whereas bacteria are beneficial to humans, but some of them may cause diseases.
- Germs may or not have a nucleus, whereas all bacteria have a nucleus.
- Germs require a host body to reproduce, whereas bacteria can reproduce everywhere and do not particularly require a host.
- Examples of germs include fungi, algae, viruses, prions, etc., whereas bacteria are of one kind only but have different shapes.
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.