Difference Between Germs and Bacteria (With Table)

Germs and bacteria are microorganisms that are not visible to the naked eye. Both of them are widely used terms in medicine and science. People often think that they are one and the same. However, this is not the case. Even though they are related to each other, there are various factors that make them different.

Germs vs Bacteria

The difference between germs and bacteria is that ‘germ’ is a blanket term that is used to describe a wide variety of microscopic organisms that generally lead to several illnesses in human beings whereas bacteria is a specific kind of germ that can either be good or bad in nature.

Germs are formally known as pathogens and even infectious agents. They refer to any kind of microscopic organism that holds the potential to cause disease in human beings. Sometimes, they can even transmit diseases from one person to another. Such organisms are generally parasitic and need a host to survive.

On the other hand, the term ‘bacteria’ refers to a single-celled organism that is found in almost every environment. It is one of the first living organisms to survive on earth and has been around for quite a long time. Most bacteria are beneficial for humans, but certain ones called pathogenic bacteria do cause various diseases.

Comparison Table Between Germs and Bacteria

Parameters of ComparisonGermsBacteria
Meaning‘Germs’ is a blanket term for a wide variety of disease-causing microorganisms.Bacteria are a specific kind of germ.
NatureThey are organisms that hold the potential of causing diseases in humans.Most bacteria are beneficial to humans but some of them may cause diseases.
NucleusThey may or not have a nucleus.They always have a nucleus.
ReproductionGerms require a host body to reproduce.Bacteria can reproduce everywhere and do not particularly require a host.
ExamplesExamples of germs include fungi, algae, viruses, prions, etc.Bacteria are of one kind only but have different shapes.

What is Germs?

The term ‘Germs’ is essentially a category for a wide variety of microscopic organisms. These creatures have the ability to cause diseases in human beings. They are also called pathogens or infectious agents. Their nature is generally parasitic, and they require a host to reproduce. Some examples of germs include fungi, algae, viruses, prions, etc.

Germs can survive in any kind of environment, be it air, soil, or water. They even live on the skin of humans and other animals. They tend to stick to surfaces and spread when different people come in contact with these surfaces. Other ways of spreading germs include touching another person, breathing air after someone coughs or sneezes and even from insect bites.

There are various ways in which one can protect themselves from these microorganisms. Some common techniques include washing hands often, avoiding meeting ill people, and practising food safety. Surfaces should be regularly disinfected to get them rid of harmful germs.

People should even take precautions to ensure that they are not spreading germs themselves. For this, one should always cover their face while coughing and sneezing. Staying at home when down with an infectious illness is another safe practice. Through this, one can ensure that their loved ones are free from harm.

What is Bacteria?

Bacteria are specific kinds of germs that are in most cases beneficial for humans. However, some of them may even cause certain diseases. These organisms are generally between 0.15 to 700 micrometres long. They can survive and breed in any kind of environment. Interestingly, they are one of the oldest inhabitants on earth.

Good bacteria play a vital role during the nutrient cycle of matter. They carry out the process of putrefaction for bodies that are decomposing. Some of these organisms also help in converting dissolved compounds into energy. This is beneficial in environments such as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents.

Meanwhile, bad bacteria or pathogenic bacteria hold the potential to cause diseases and illnesses in humans. They either attack the cells of a host directly or produce endotoxins that carry out the job. Sometimes, they even cause a powerful immune response in the cells of the host, causing them damage.

However, these pathogens can also be attacked by other pathogens at times. These attackers are certain viruses called bacteriophages or simply phages. They cause an infection in the bacteria which leads to its death. Phages can even infect humans and animals. Moreover, they can even be infected by another phage!

Main Differences Between Germs and Bacteria

  1. ‘Germs’ is a blanket term for a wide variety of disease-causing microorganisms whereas bacteria are a specific kind of germ.
  2. Germs are organisms that hold the potential of causing diseases in humans whereas bacteria are beneficial to humans but some of them may cause diseases.
  3. Germs may or not have a nucleus whereas all bacteria have a nucleus.
  4. Germs require a host body to reproduce whereas bacteria can reproduce everywhere and do not particularly require a host.
  5. Examples of germs include fungi, algae, viruses, prions, etc. whereas bacteria are of one kind only but have different shapes.

Conclusion

Germs and bacteria may be related to each other, but they have various factors that differentiate them. In the field of science and medicine, and even for the sake of accuracy, it is best to know how to tell them apart. A major factor in play is that germs are a blanket term for a wide variety of microscopic organisms, and bacteria are a specific kind of germ.

Another distinguishing factor is that when someone refers to germs, they generally suggest that these creatures are harmful. This, in fact, is very close to what germs actually are. Any microorganism that can potentially cause disease or illness is placed under this category. Bacteria also have this potential. However, most of them tend to be good and beneficial to humans.

Lastly, while germs may or may not have a nucleus, all bacteria have a nucleus. Moreover, germs generally require a host body to reproduce whereas certain bacteria can reproduce anywhere and everywhere. They do not necessarily need a host for this matter.

References

  1. https://ejrsme.icrsme.com/article/view/7741
  2. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24955617
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