Difference Between HashMap and LinkedHashMap (With Table)

Java is a class-oriented programming language that is used for implementing orders with the least number of dependencies. Map Interface in Java represents the relation between a key and its value. Several groups of Map implementations maintain the Map Interface.

HashMap and LinkedHashMap are two popularly used Map implementations of Java. The similarity between the two is that they are not synchronized. they also have similarities in their performances. But what is the difference between the two?

HashMap vs LinkedHashMap

The difference between HashMap and LinkedHashMap is that HashMap does not preserve the order in which the keys or elements are entered whereas LinkedHashMap follows key insertion order and preserve the order of elements.

HashMap is the Map implementation of Java that uses AbstractMap class and extends it to help create a collection of inherits that belong to the same class. The elements entered do not have an order and the order in which they are entered is also not stored.

LinkedHashMap is another Map implementation that is a subclass of HashMap. Since they have key insertion order, their applications are in areas where the order of insertion and access matters. They also have more memory than HashMap.

Comparison Table between HashMap and LinkedHashMap

Parameters of ComparisonHashMapLinkedHashMap
MeaningIt is a java Map implementation that uses AbstractMap class and helps in creating a collection of inherits.It is also a type of Java Map and is a subclass of HashMap that implements Hashtable and Linked List of Map.
ElementsThe elements entered in a HashMap are not in order.The elements are known to be in key insertion order.
OrderThe order that the elements are entered in is not preserved by the HashMap.Since they are in key insertion order, the order of entering the elements is preserved.
Data structureThey are stored as a list of buckets and is implemented as a Hashtable in Map interface.LinkedHashMap has a doubly-linked list running through all the lists stored in it.
RetrievalRetrieving or performing other such tasks on the lists stored in HashMap is easy.Retrieving, removing or adding entries into the LinkedHashMap is harder than in HashMap.
ApplicationsIt is used in places for easier retrieval and other general purposes.It is applied or used in places where the insertion or access order matters. Like LRU cache.

What is HashMap?

HashMap is a Map Implementation that implements and extends in AbstractMap to help create a collection of inherits belonging to the same class. It is a class that allows one to store keys and its values to form a Map interface.

HashMap is not synchronized. It can also store null values, but only one null key should be defined. It would not work over multiple null keys. This is also because the keys stored have to be unique.

Even if a duplicate one is stored, it is replaced by the original one in the list. The feature that differentiates this from the other groups of map implementation is that they do not have an order to enter the key and neither to they store the order it is entered in.

The data structure can be easily retrieved from a HashMap. The retrieved data can also be modified, added to, removed with ease. So their main applications are in places that require a fast retrieval process as well as other general purposes.

What is LinkedHashMap?

LinkedHashMap is also a map implementation group. They are a subgroup of HashMap but extends and implements HashMap itself that further extends to AbstractMap and then to map interface.

LinkedHashMap is also not synchronized or linked. Even though the values entered should be unique, they can have more than one null values in the list but only one null key.

In this map implementation, the keys are entered in order or what is known as key insertion order. The order of the keys entered is also preserved in the same manner.

This is overlooked and maintained by the doubly-linked lists running through all the lists. Since they maintain the order, their application in the areas where the insertion and access order is important.

Difference Between HashMap and LinkedHashMap

  1. HashMap is a popular Java Map implementation that uses AbstractMap class and can extend it for helping in the creation of a collection of inherits of the AbstractMap. LinkedHashMap is a subclass of HashMap and it extends HashMap and implements Linked List of Map.
  2. The elements entered into HashMap do not have a particular order whereas LinkedHashMap follows key insertion order.
  3. The main difference is the preservation of order by the two Maps. HashMap does not preserve the order in which the keys or elements are entered. Whereas, since LinkedHashMap follows key insertion order, they preserve the order in which the elements are entered.
  4. The data structure of HashMap is stored as lists of buckets that have Hashtable implemented over them. If there are more than a particular number of entries, then they are switched to a balanced form. On the other hand, LinkedHashMap has doubly-linked lists running through all the lists stored to manage their data structure.
  5. Retrieving and performing functions like removing, adding data entries is easy in HashMap. But performing the same functions on LinkedHashMap is harder than in HashMap.
  6. Since retrieving data entries is easier, HashMap is used for fast data retrieval and other general purposes. On the other hand, LinkedHashMap is used in places where the order of insertion or access is important. Like in LRU cache.

Conclusion

HashMap and LinkedHashMap are two Map implementations of Java that are used for maintaining Map Interface. Though they have a few similarities, they have major differences between them that gave rise to the need of the two groups.

HashMap is the Map implementation that implements and extends AbstractMap. They also have faster data retrieval speed and performing functions like adding and removing entries on these data are also faster.

LinkedHashMap is a subclass of HashMap and is also a Map implementation that implements and extends HashMap itself. The elements entered are stored according to the order that was entered of the Access Order.

The difference between HashMap and LinkedHashMap is also that HashMap has a greater retrieval speed whereas LinkedHashMap has greater memory when compared to HashMap.

References

  1. Efficient fuzzy search enabled hash map (ieee.org)
  2. File uploading and Java Hash map data structure (researchgate.net)
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