Difference Between Hypomania and Mania (With Table)

Mental illness is a condition that affects the way a person thinks, feels, functions, and behaves. There are types of mental illnesses which commonly include clinical depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, dementia, schizophrenia, eating disorders, excessive compulsive disorder, paranoia, and many more.

Two commonly experienced forms are hypomania and mania.

Hypomania vs Mania

The difference between Hypomania and Mania is that Hypomania is comparatively less severe or extreme than Mania while Mania is a severe condition and has symptoms of bipolar disorder. Mania is not just about irregular energy levels or mood swings, it can even lead to hospitalization while Hypomania is a milder form of Mania.

Hypomania is a symptom of bipolar disorder. It usually arises from an extreme level of stress or excessive use of drugs or alcohol products. It is sometimes experienced from lack of sleep or insomnia also. The patients face an abnormal rise or fall in the energy level of the body.

Mania is a severe or extended form of hypomania. The symptoms of mania are intense. Patients experience abnormal levels of energy, restlessness, and mood swings in the body. The sleep cycle is hampered and they experience a racing mind and excessive pounding heart. Some patients are even likely to cause self-harm.

Comparison Table Between Hypomania and Mania

Parameters of comparisonHypomaniaMania
CauseInsomnia and use of drugsInsomnia, excessive indulgence in drugs and alcohol, and medication
SymptomsAbnormal energy level, mood swings, restlessness, disturbed sleep cycle, rise in sexual desires Abnormal energy level, psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and paranoid thoughts
SeverityMild to moderate (does not require hospitalization) Severe or Intense (may require hospitalization)
TreatmentHealthy lifestyle with exercise, healthy diet and medicationMedications (mood stabilizers, antipsychotics) and psychotherapy
PreventionBy avoiding skipping meals, ensuring proper sleep, following a healthy lifestyle, and by keeping track of the emotions By reducing stress, taking the medications regularly, and being under the supervision of a doctor

What is Hypomania?

Hypomania is an abnormal and persistent hype in the energy which disrupts the entire functioning of the body like mood, behavior, thinking, and comprehending ability. It is a common symptom of bipolar disorder. The patients experience unusual anxiety, irritability, excitement, restlessness, unable to focus, confusion, and lack of sleep. The symptoms can last from days to several weeks.

Certain hypomanic behavior includes talking relentlessly, spending recklessly, increase or demand inappropriate sexual desires, land into an argument in a public place, sudden pride or self-esteem in oneself. All these random behavior can be coupled under extreme mood swings.

Though the exact cause of Hypomania is not known, generally patients have a history of medication which have side-effect or excessive drug addiction, alcohol consumption, irregular sleep patterns, and uncontrollable stress burden. The patients who experience depression with hypomania, are seen to develop bipolar disorder in the later stages or if left untreated.

The symptoms of Hypomania appear mild when compared with Mania, but it is advised to be under the constant guidance of a doctor. The treatment would include medication, regular exercise, inculcating a healthy lifestyle, and promoting productive thoughts. Keeping a track of the emotions, thoughts, and symptoms is essential.

What is Mania?

Mania is an intense condition of abnormal energy, uncontrollable mood, racing heart and thoughts, hallucinations, delusions, and paranoid thoughts. The patients also experience depression. Some patients can even reach the edge of self-harm and suicide.

Mania is not just a mental illness but also a mental emergency as the patient can even face shortness of breath, cardiac arrest, and bleeding. The symptoms usually last from weeks to several months. Several behavior characteristics make it easier to identify Mania like extreme irregularity in the sleep cycle, sudden bursts of energy which in turn brings exaggerated productivity, or even extreme multitasking, racing thoughts that bring distraction, inner chaos, and confusion, and attempts of attack on self or others.

There can be several causes of Mania like brain tumor or injury, dementia, encephalitis, uncontrollable stress, trauma or abuse, lack of sleep, the side effect of medications, and an excessive addiction to drugs and alcohol.

The patient should be under the constant guidance of a professional and follow the medications and psychotherapy advised. Incorporating a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet and exercise can also bring changes. Cultivating meditation to calm the mind is effective. Avoid skipping meals and follow a well-structured sleep plan to maintain sanity.

Main Differences Between Hypomania and Mania

  1. Hypomania is a milder version of Mania while Mania is an intense mental illness condition.
  2. Hypomania does not require hospitalization while Mania can be fatal and may require hospitalization.
  3. A Hypomania episode usually lasts hours while a Mania episode may last for weeks.
  4. Hypomania may or may not be a symptom of bipolar 2 disorder while Mania can be a symptom of bipolar 1 disorder.
  5. Hypomania patients experience restlessness, mood swings, irritability, and other confusions while Mania patients can experience hallucinations, delusions or suicidal thoughts.
  6. Hypomania patients do not need psychotherapy and may or may not undergo medications, as prescribed by the doctor while Mania patients should undergo medications and psychotherapy.

Conclusion

Hypomania and Mania are two crucial and common mental disorders. Both can be symptoms of bipolar disorder. Psychotherapy and antipsychotic drugs are used for the treatment of both illnesses. Another similar factor is their cause or origin. The patients of both diseases are seen to have a history of addiction, insomnia, and loss of appetite.

Mania is an intense mental condition and should be treated right from the first day of trigger. Any mental illness should not be treated inattentively as it can have a rippling effect all over the body and can also lead to other serious disorders.

Apart from medications and therapy, the patients should boost from their end and bring changes like a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet, regular exercise, proper sleep schedule, productivity at work, and not overload the mind with stress, can make any medication even more effective and efficient.

References

  1. https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.2.232
  2. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15622970510029885
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