Every job application involves various steps before the qualification of the job applicants. The steps and processes involved during the recruitment of job applications are known as job analysis. Job analysis provides an overview of skills and qualifications that are expected from the candidates applying for the job position. Job analysis can be further classified into two main types that are the job description and job specification.
Job Description vs Job Specification
The main difference between job description and job specification is that job description provides a summary of all the roles, tasks, and responsibilities that are expected to be offered to the candidate by the company while job specification provides an overview of all the expected skills, attributes, experience and qualification from the candidate for the job position in the company.
The Job description has originated from job analysis. Job description contains the details like qualifications required by the candidates of the position, knowledge about the skills, tools, or aids that should be used at work, physical demands, salary range, and even working conditions.
While, the job specification for any specific role can include aspects like work experience, education, managerial experience, personality traits which help in evaluating the candidate for the role. The determining factor of whether the candidate is suitable for the accomplishment of the goals related to the position can be done through jobs specification.
Comparison Table Between Job Description and Job Specification
|Parameters of Comparison||Job Description||Job Specification|
|Definition||Job description contains detailed information about the job position like title, duties, responsibilities, job location, role in a format||Job specification contains a set of information like qualities, experience, qualifications, the knowledge that are essential for the candidate to perform the job role|
|Origin||Job description has originated from job analysis||Job specification has originated from the job description|
|purpose||Job description provides the essential description of the job profile||Job specification provides the eligibility criteria for the candidates of the job profile|
|Elements||Provide details like job title, job role, job location, responsibilities, allowances, duties, salary, and incentives||Provides details like knowledge, attributes, skills, qualification, experience, and other requirements|
|Relationship with the organization||Job description provides insights about the offerings of the company to the candidate||Job specification provides the expectation of the company from the candidates|
What is a Job Description?
Job description which is also known as JD is the description of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities that are related to the job position. It contains the details like qualifications required by the candidates of the position, knowledge about the skills, tools, or aids that should be used at work, physical demands, salary range, and even working conditions.
The job description can be related to job analysis which examines the sequences and tasks which are required by the candidate to perform in the job position. Job descriptions are usually in narrative form and can also contain a list of competencies. Job analysis aims to collect and record information about the job, the accuracy of the information, and use the information to evaluate the abilities, skills, and knowledge required to complete the tasks of the job position.
A broader synonymous meaning of job description can be terms of reference which forms the person specification. The main use of job descriptions is by employers during the recruitment process. The job description can also contain the relationship factor with other co-workers of the organization like that of managerial level, supervisory level, and other related requirements.
The job description is not only restricted to two descriptions about the current job position but also can include goals that are expected to be achieved in the future. It can include probable promotion conditions and routes. Job descriptions can be inflexible in certain organizations which are rapidly changing. Senior-level recruitment may cause hindrance in freedom of choice and directions through job description.
What is Job Specification?
Job specification refers to the skills, knowledge, and abilities that are required to perform a certain job position in any organization. The job specification for any specific role can include aspects like work experience, education, managerial experience, personality traits which help in evaluating the candidate for the role. The determining factor of whether the candidate is suitable for the accomplishment of the goals related to the position can be done through jobs specification.
The concept of a job specification is derived from job analysis. Job specification plays an essential role in the selection and recruitment process of any organization. It is also helpful in evaluating the performance of the employees and can further play role in the promotion and appraisal of the employee.
Job specifications contain specific details of the position of the job. Job specification not only plays a vital role during the recruitment process but also is used for screening resumes and shortlisting the appropriate ones that fit closest to the job position. Any job profile revolves around certain parameters. The four main parameters are educational qualification, experience, skillset and knowledge, and personality characteristics and traits. Job specification focuses on all these four parameters.
Job specification essentially highlights all the minute details that are required by the potential candidates. It also provides a threshold for recruiting managers. It builds a framework based on which the prospects can be selected. It helps in providing a benchmark for the managers while evaluating the employees. Job specification can be quite a time-consuming process and can be rigid concerning changing technology.
Main Differences Between Job Description and Job Specification
- Job description provides an overview of the role and tasks that will be offered to the candidate while job specification provides an overview of skills, qualifications, and experience that is expected from the applicant for the job role.
- Drafting a job description is not a lengthy process while creating a job specification is a lengthy and time-consuming process.
- The function of a job description is to describe the job profile while the function of a job specification is to specify the eligibility criteria for the job applicants.
- Job description refers to the offering of the company to the candidate while job specification refers to the expectation of the company from the candidate.
- A job description aims to provide relevant and enough information about the job role while a job specification aims to evaluate the right candidate for the job role.
Job analysis plays a determining role for any vacancy of job position. Job analysis consists of all the necessary qualifications and requirements for the job role. it is the fundamental part of any recruiting team of an industry or organization. It involves strategic planning as well as deep psychology to evaluate the appropriate choice.
Job analysis is further divided into two types that are job description and job specification. Both the features have their components and parameters. Both the features play a pivotal role in every organization or company. It is the combination of both the features that lead to determining and selecting the closest fit for a role.
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