Difference Between Matter and Energy (With Table)

Matter and energy make the universe. Both matter and energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be used in different forms. The matter is subdivided into solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Energy is the capacity to do work. The energy can be transferred to different forms, and that includes kinetic energy, potential energy, etc.

Matter vs Energy

The difference between matter and energy lies in their concepts. The matter has mass and occupies space. Each matter has its properties, and no two matters share the same kind of properties. Energy is not like matter; it is the ability to move things. Energy moves matter. 

The matter is made of atoms and molecules. All the physical forms of matter are called states of matter. The states of matter are further subdivided into solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. A state of matter is used to describe the behaviour of atoms and molecules in a substance. 

Energy is the force or the ability to perform work. Energy exerts a force that makes the substance or object move. It can be transferred from one form into another that makes people execute tasks. There are different forms of energy, and those are kinetic energy, potential energy, mechanical energy, etc.

Comparison Table Between Matter and Energy

Parameters of ComparisonMatterEnergy
DefinitionThe matter has mass and occupies spaceThe ability to do work
FormsSolid, Liquid, Gas, and PlasmaKinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Chemical Energy, Thermal energy, Mechanical Energy, Internal Energy, Conservation Energy, Thermal Energy, Bond Energy, etc
PropertyMatter has massEnergy does not have mass
CharacteristicMatter takes up space called volumeEnergy does not take up space
S.I  UnitMatter does not have an SI unitThe SI unit of energy is joules

What is Matter?

The term matter is described as anything that occupies space and has some mass. The matter has been divided into two types and that are atoms and molecules. Atoms can be defined as the particles of elements that cannot be further broken down, and molecules can be defined as the group of atoms that are combined by a chemical bond.

At present, there are more than 109 elements present in the universe. The physical forms of matter are called states of matter. The states of matter are subdivided into three states, namely, solid, liquid, and gas. There is a fourth state of matter that also exists in everyday lives, and that is called plasma.

A state of matter is used to describe the behaviour of atoms and molecules in a substance. Solid is one of the states of matter where the molecules are held by stronger bonds.

Examples include the metal bowls. In liquids, the molecules are weaker than the solids—for example, coffee, water, tea, juices, etc. Gases can be differentiated by low density and viscosity.

The shape of the gas is not fixed, and they have weak or no bonds—for example, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, etc. Plasma which is also one of the states of matter, consists of atoms or molecules following the conditions of temperature and pressure. The shape and volume are not fixed. Examples of plasma include the illuminated state such as lighting, electric sparks, and some types of flames.

 What is Energy?

Energy is the force employed or the ability to perform multiple tasks. For instance, if a person is throwing a ball, he is transferring that energy to the ball, and the ball will fly in the air.

An example of this is if a person is moving some object, that person is doing some work, and that will lead to transferring of his energy to the object so that it can move. Energy can change its form. There are different forms of energy. Some of them are 

  • Kinetic energy
  • Chemical energy
  • Bond energy
  • Thermal energy
  • Mechanical energy
  • Conservation energy, etc

Kinetic energy is defined as the energy an object possesses due to motion. The moving object always has kinetic energy. The density of the object is an indicator of kinetic energy. Heavy objects with a higher capacity to move faster exerts higher kinetic energy. Potential energy is a form of energy that can be held by an object. For example, if an object is placed on the surface of the earth, that object will have potential energy because of its position relative to the ground.

 Main Differences Between Matter and Energy

  1. Matter occupies space and has mass, whereas energy is the capacity to do work.
  2. Energy has an International Standardization system of Units (SI) which is called joules, whereas matter does not have such International Standardization of Units. 
  3. In the biological system, the matter is oxidized during the process of respiration into carbon dioxide and water. On the other hand, the energy is transferred as matter and broken down into simpler molecules, and energy is released in the form of heat. 
  4. The matter is converted from carbon dioxide and water into glucose, whereas energy is converted from light energy to chemical energy.
  5. The matter has been further divided into atoms and molecules. The molecules are broken down and are converted into other molecules as part of growth and biomass allocation. While energy is transferred as matter and can be transported from one chemical to another.

Conclusion

Matter and energy are the two most important concepts in science. The matter is the material of the universe, whereas energy is the force employed or the ability to perform multiple tasks and causes the flow of heat. The energy has the International Unit of Standardization which is joules which means the energy can be measured.

The matter can be measured, and it is not having the International Unit of Standardization unit as well. The energy can be used in different forms such as thermal energy, kinetic energy, chemical energy, bond energy, and other forms of energy. The matter has been divided into atoms and elements. Physical forms of matter called the states of matter have been subdivided into solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. 

References

  1. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/285726
  2. https://acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.2136/sssaj1964.03615995002800020013x
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2D vs 3D