Difference Between Mitosis And Binary Fission (With Table)

Mitosis and Binary Fission, both terms are used in the biology branch of science. The concept of the terms is the same being that both are the forms of asexual reproduction, in which a parent cell divides itself to form two identical cells. Though the concept is the same there are many key differences, including the process.

Mitosis vs Binary Fission

The main difference between mitosis and binary fission is that mitosis occurs in eukaryotes while binary fission occurs in prokaryotes. Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a membrane-bound nucleus, eg plants, and animals. Prokaryotes are organisms that do not have membrane-bound nuclei e.g. bacteria.

Mitosis is a cell division process in which the cell divides itself into two daughter cells, and these daughter cells have the same chromosomes as the parent nucleus. The chromosomes are replicated. It increases the number of cells in plants and animals. It occurs in somatic cells. The process of mitosis is important for the growth, repair, and development of cells.

Binary Fission is a type of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes. Unicellular organisms like amoeba reproduce by binary fission. It’s a faster process of cell division. The cell divides into identical half with each half growing the same size as the parent organism.

Comparison Table Between Mitosis And Binary Fission

Parameters of ComparisonMitosisBinary Fission
Occurs inThe process of mitosis occurs in eukaryotes.The process of binary fission occurs in prokaryotes.
SpeedMitosis is a slow process.Binary fission is a rapid process.
TypesThere are no types of mitosis.There are 4 types of binary fission.
PhasesThere are 5 phases in the process of mitosis.There are no phases.
Spindle FormationMitosis includes spindle formation.Binary fission does not include spindle formation.
Sister ChromatidsMitosis included the sister chromatids.The binary process does not include the sister chromatids.
DNAThe DNA is attached to the mitotic spindle.The DNA is attached to the cell membrane.
Chromosome’s IncrementChromosomes did not increase.Sometimes the chromosomes increase in number.

What is Mitosis?

Mitosis occurs in the organisms whose cells have a nucleus i.e. eukaryotes. It is a complex and slow process. The cells divide themselves into two parts. The parts are the replicas of the parent cells. The process increases the number of cells during the blastogenesis and embryogenesis of animals and plants.

The process is divided into 5 phases: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Through these five phases, in the prophase, the linear chromosomes replicate. In the prometaphase, the nucleus membrane disintegrates, and fiber organizes to form the mitotic spindle. In the metaphase chromosomes align on the spindle with the help of microtubules and the DNA attaches to the spindle for division. In anaphase, the two sets of chromosomes are lured away from each other through the spindle. In the last phase, telophase, the spindles, and chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell, a nuclear membrane is formed around each content and the cell membrane separates into two cells.

Mitosis is a slow process so it takes more time to occur, mostly a total of 70 to 180 minutes. The main function of the process is the growth, repair, and development of the cells. And also to replace the cells which are worn out.

What is Binary Fission?

Binary Fission occurs in organisms whose cells do not contain a nucleus i.e. prokaryotes. For example, unicellular organisms like an amoeba. Binary Fission is also known as prokaryotic fission. It is a form of asexual reproduction in which the cells divide and split themselves into equal parts. The organism duplicates its DNA into two parts, each part receiving the same DNA. The DNA in this process is attached to the cell membrane. The two new cells have the ability to grow the same size as the parent cell.

It is a fast process to reproduce, many prokaryotes organisms took only minutes to complete the process. Like E. Coli is a bacteria that divides and completes the binary fission process in 20 minutes. Indeed, it is a simpler process and so it doesn’t have any phases.

Though there are 4 types of binary fission:

  1. Irregular in which the cells divide at any plane,
  2. Longitudinal in which the cell divides longitudinally,
  3. Transverse in which the cell divides along the transverse axis
  4. And the Oblique binary fission in which the cell divides obliquely, it can be left or right oblique.

The process of the binary process doesn’t involve any phase that means it doesn’t need to form a spindle. Neither does it involve the sister chromatids.

Main Differences Between Mitosis And Binary Fission

  1. Mitosis occurs in eukaryotes while binary fission occurs in prokaryotes.
  2. Mitosis is a slower process than binary fission.
  3. Mitosis is a complex process while binary fission is a simple process.
  4. There are no types of mitosis processes. There are many types of binary fission.
  5. Mitosis takes place in plants and animals while binary fission takes place in bacteria and unicellular organisms like an amoeba.
  6. The process of mitosis happens in 5 phases while there is no phase in the process of binary fission.
  7. The mitosis process involves the sister chromatids while the binary fission does not.

Conclusion

The concept of both mitosis and binary fission is the same, which is to divide the cells into more cells. Though there are many differences the most important difference is the organisms they occur in.

Mitosis is a cell division process that occurs in eukaryotes, i.e. organisms like plants and animals. It is a simple but complex process. It is divided into 5 phases. The main function of the process is the growth and development of the cells.

Binary fission occurs in prokaryotes. Binary fission is the most familiar and simplest form of asexual reproduction. It is a fast and simple process. This process doesn’t have any stages or phases. Though there are four types of binary fission.

References

  1. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1096
  2. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1096
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