Difference Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell (With Table)

Mitosis is a procedure by which cell division occurs in animal and plant cells. It is a part of reproduction, basically asexual reproduction taking place in animal and plant cells. The genetic material that is transferred to the offspring remains the same as of the parent cell. Mitosis helps to increase the no. of cells of the body during the process of repair, growth, and regeneration.

Mitosis occurs in four basic steps, namely as Prophase (chromatin reticulum condensates), Metaphase (aligning of the chromosomes in the middle of the cell), Anaphase (separation of a chromosome into two identical and independent chromosomes), and Telophase (formation of the nuclear membrane around chromosome). Each of the four steps is further divided into two phases.

Mitosis in Plant Cell vs Animal Cell 

The difference between Mitosis in Plant cells and animal cells is that the formation of mitotic spindles takes place without any centrioles in plant cell mitosis, whereas, in animal cell mitosis, the formation of mitotic spindle takes place with the help of two centrioles. Mitosis is a step that is followed by the division of cytoplasm into two identical daughter cells, known as cytokinesis.

Plant cell mitosis is the process of formation of two identical daughter nuclei from single-parent nuclei of the plant cell. The daughter nuclei contain the replicated genetic material. Mitosis in the plant cells occurs in the meristem region of the plants. The process occurs in four steps, namely prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

Animal cell mitosis is the process of the formation of two identical daughter nuclei from single-parent nuclei of the animal cell. The daughter nuclei contain the replicated chromosomes. The location of the mitosis in animal cells is the whole body. Mitosis can occur anywhere in the animal body. The process occurs in four steps, the same as in the case of plant cells.

Comparison Table Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell

Parameters of ComparisonMitosis in Plant CellMitosis in Animal Cell
MeaningProcess of formation of two identical daughter cells from a single parent cell of the plant cell.Process of formation of two identical daughter cells from a single parent cell of the animal cell.
Change Before Cell DivisionNo change in the shape of cellsCell becomes rounded
LocationIn meristemsThroughout the body
CentrosomesNot formedFormed
CentriolesIs not presentHelp organize the mitotic spindle
MidbodyDoesn’t appearsAppears
Mitotic spindleAnastralAmphiastral
Spindle During CytokinesisExists as phragmoplastDegenerates before cytokinesis

What is Mitosis in Plant Cell?

Plant cell mitosis is the process of formation of two identical daughter nuclei from single-parent nuclei of the plant cell. The daughter nuclei contain the replicated genetic material. This process is followed by cytokinesis, division of cytoplasm into two identical daughter cells, ultimately resulting in the formation of two identical daughter cells. Mitosis in the plant cells occurs in the meristem region of the plants.

Prophase: chromatin of the cell condensates to individual chromosomes for further division of the genetic material. Microtubules such as centrioles are not present in the plant cell. The formation of the mitotic spindle takes place by the nucleation of microtubules near the nuclear envelope. The mitotic spindle is anastral in cases of mitosis in plant cells.

Metaphase: Before metaphase, the pro-metaphase happens in the nuclear envelope that breaks down. The chromosomes are aligned at the equator in the cells during this phase. Anaphase: The chromatids are separated from the centromere and move opposite to each other towards each of the poles. Each of the sister chromatids can be now called daughter nuclei due to the occurrence of the division of the genetic material. Telophase: After the daughter nuclei reach the pol, the nuclear envelope formation takes place. This is followed by cytokinesis for the formation of two identical daughter cells.

What is Mitosis in Animal Cell?

Animal cell mitosis is the process of the formation of two identical daughter nuclei from a single parent nucleus of the animal cell. The daughter nuclei contain the replicated genetic material. This process is followed by cytokinesis, division of cytoplasm into two identical daughter cells, ultimately resulting in the formation of two identical daughter cells. Mitosis in the animal cells occurs throughout the animal body. 

Prophase: Before the prophase of mitosis, cells enter into the interphase. The interphase of mitosis helps the DNA of the cell to divide and helps the formation of two sister chromatids. The microtubules present in the plant cells help in maintaining the shape of the cell and help information of the mitotic spindle. These are arranged in the cell with the help of centrioles at the poles.

Metaphase: Before metaphase, the pro-metaphase happens in the nuclear envelope that breaks down. The chromosomes are aligned at the equator in the cells during this phase. Anaphase: The chromatids are separated from the centromere and move opposite to each other towards each of the poles. Each of the sister chromatids can be now called daughter nuclei due to the occurrence of the division of the genetic material. Telophase: After the daughter nuclei reach the pol, the nuclear envelope formation takes place. This is followed by cytokinesis for the formation of two identical daughter cells. 

Main Differences Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell

  1. Mitosis in plant cells occurs in the meristem of the plant, while mitosis in the animal cell occurs throughout the body. 
  2. The spindle in plant cell mitosis is anastral, while it is amphiastral in animal cell mitosis. 
  3. Centrosomes are formed during mitosis in animal cells while in plant cell mitosis, it is not formed.
  4. A mid-body occurs during the animal cell mitosis, while no such mid-body formed in plant cell mitosis.  
  5. Centrioles present in animal cell mitosis while it is absent during plant cell mitosis.

Conclusion

Mitosis is the process of the formation of new cells. It is the most common mode of asexual reproduction taking place in plant cells and animal cells. The difference in both of them is in the first phase of mitosis, which is known as prophase. The rest three-phase (metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) remains the same in both plant cells and animal cells. The formation of new cells takes place by the division of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells. The prime location of mitosis is the meristem in plant cells, while it occurs throughout the animal body. 

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001216060600162X
  2. https://journals.biologists.com/jcs/article/s2-73/290/197/63215/Memoirs-Nucleolar-Behaviour-in-the-Mitosis-of
  3. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jemt.1060170206
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