Mitosis in Plant Cell vs Animal Cell: Difference and Comparison

Mitosis is a procedure by which cell division occurs in animal and plant cells. It is a part of reproduction, basically asexual reproduction taking place in animal and plant cells.

The genetic material that is transferred to the offspring remains the same as that of the parent cell. Mitosis helps to increase the number of cells in the body during repair, growth, and regeneration.

Mitosis occurs in four basic steps, namely as Prophase (chromatin reticulum condensates), Metaphase (aligning of the chromosomes in the middle of the cell), Anaphase (separation of a chromosome into two identical and independent chromosomes), and Telophase (formation of the nuclear membrane around chromosome).

Each of the four steps is further divided into two phases.

Key Takeaways

  1. Plant cells form a cell plate during cytokinesis, while animal cells undergo cleavage furrow formation.
  2. Centrioles are present in animal cells during mitosis but not in plant cells.
  3. Plant cells possess rigid cell walls, while animal cells have flexible cell membranes.

Mitosis in Plant Cell vs Animal Cell 

Mitosis in a plant cell is the process by which a single parent nucleus of a plant cell will create two identical nuclei which contain the replicated genetic material. Mitosis in the animal cell occurs when a single parent nuclei of an animal cell divides into two identical daughter nuclei, followed by cytokinesis.

Mitosis in Plant Cell vs Animal Cell

Plant cell mitosis is the process of the formation of two identical daughter nuclei from single-parent nuclei of the plant cell. The daughter nuclei contain the replicated genetic material.

Mitosis in the plant cells occurs in the meristem region of the plants. The process occurs in four steps: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

Animal cell mitosis is the process of the formation of two identical daughter nuclei from single-parent nuclei of the animal cell. The daughter nuclei contain the replicated chromosomes.

The location of mitosis in animal cells is the whole body. Mitosis can occur anywhere in the animal body. The process occurs in four steps, the same as in the case of plant cells.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonMitosis in Plant CellMitosis in Animal Cell
MeaningProcess of formation of two identical daughter cells from a single parent cell of the plant cell.Process of formation of two identical daughter cells from a single parent cell of the animal cell.
Change Before Cell DivisionNo change in the shape of cellsCell becomes rounded
LocationIn meristemsThroughout the body
CentrosomesNot formedFormed
CentriolesIs not presentHelp organize the mitotic spindle
MidbodyDoesn’t appearsAppears
Mitotic spindleAnastralAmphiastral
Spindle During CytokinesisExists as phragmoplastDegenerates before cytokinesis

What is Mitosis in Plant Cells?

Plant cell mitosis is the process of the formation of two identical daughter nuclei from single-parent nuclei of the plant cell. The daughter nuclei contain the replicated genetic material.

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This process is followed by cytokinesis, the division of cytoplasm into two identical daughter cells, ultimately forming two identical daughter cells. Mitosis in the plant cells occurs in the meristem region of the plants.

Prophase: chromatin of the cell condensates to individual chromosomes for further division of the genetic material. Microtubules such as centrioles are not present in the plant cell.

The formation of the mitotic spindle takes place through the nucleation of microtubules near the nuclear envelope. The mitotic spindle is anastral in cases of mitosis in plant cells.

Metaphase: Before metaphase, the pro-metaphase happens in the nuclear envelope that breaks down. The chromosomes are aligned at the equator in the cells during this phase.

Anaphase: The chromatids are separated from the centromere and move opposite to each other towards each of the poles. Each of the sister chromatids can now be called daughter nuclei due to the occurrence of the division of the genetic material.

Telophase: After the daughter nuclei reach the pol, the nuclear envelope formation takes place. This is followed by cytokinesis for the formation of two identical daughter cells.

mitosis in plant cell

What is Mitosis in Animal Cells?

Animal cell mitosis is the process of the formation of two identical daughter nuclei from a single parent nucleus of the animal cell. The daughter nuclei contain the replicated genetic material.

This process is followed by cytokinesis, the division of cytoplasm into two identical daughter cells, ultimately forming two identical daughter cells. Mitosis in the animal cells occurs throughout the animal body. 

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Prophase: Before the prophase of mitosis, cells enter into the interphase. The interphase of mitosis helps the DNA of the cell to divide and helps the formation of two sister chromatids.

The microtubules present in the plant cells help maintain the shape of the cell and help provide information about the mitotic spindle. These are arranged in the cell with the help of centrioles at the poles.

Metaphase: Before metaphase, the pro-metaphase happens in the nuclear envelope that breaks down. The chromosomes are aligned at the equator in the cells during this phase.

Anaphase: The chromatids are separated from the centromere and move opposite to each other towards each of the poles. Each of the sister chromatids can now be called daughter nuclei due to the occurrence of the division of the genetic material.

Telophase: After the daughter nuclei reach the pol, the nuclear envelope formation takes place. This is followed by cytokinesis for the formation of two identical daughter cells. 

Main Differences Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell

  1. Mitosis in plant cells occurs in the meristem of the plant, while mitosis in the animal cell occurs throughout the body. 
  2. The spindle in plant cell mitosis is anastral, while it is amphiastral in animal cell mitosis. 
  3. Centrosomes are formed during mitosis in animal cells, while in plant cell mitosis, it is not formed.
  4. A mid-body occurs during animal cell mitosis, while no such mid-body is formed in plant cell mitosis.  
  5. Centrioles are present in animal cell mitosis, while it is absent during plant cell mitosis.
Difference Between Mitosis in Plant Cell and Animal Cell
References
  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001216060600162X
  2. https://journals.biologists.com/jcs/article/s2-73/290/197/63215/Memoirs-Nucleolar-Behaviour-in-the-Mitosis-of
  3. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jemt.1060170206

Last Updated : 11 June, 2023

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11 thoughts on “Mitosis in Plant Cell vs Animal Cell: Difference and Comparison”

  1. The article would have benefitted from more diagrams or visual representations to supplement the text. It would make it easier for visual learners to comprehend.

    Reply
  2. As a biologist, I appreciate how the article went into great detail about the process and differences between mitosis in plant and animal cells. Well done!

    Reply
  3. This article was both informative and interesting to read. The detailed explanation of mitosis in both plant and animal cells was brilliant!

    Reply
  4. While the article did a great job at explaining the differences between mitosis in plant and animal cells, it lacked in providing practical examples to further illustrate the concepts.

    Reply
    • I understand your point, Jeremy. It would have been more beneficial for readers to see real-life scenarios where mitosis takes place for a better understanding.

      Reply
  5. The article is extremely well researched, and the comparison table at the end provides a very clear differentiation between mitosis in plant and animal cells. Great work!

    Reply
  6. An insightful piece! I never fully understood the differences between mitosis in plant and animal cells until I read this article. It’s all clearer to me now!

    Reply

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