Difference Between Cytokinesis in Plant Cells and Animal Cells (With Table)

Cytokinesis is one of the crucial topics of reproduction. It plays a major part while dividing the cells for regeneration, which divides the cytoplasm from parental cells into daughter cells either through mitosis or meiosis phase. During cytokinesis, the cytoplasm splits into two equal halves, nothing but into two daughter cells to ensure genetic segregation. 

Cytokinesis in Plant Cells vs Animal Cells

The difference between cytokinesis in plant cells and animal cells is that cytokinesis begins in prophase in the case of plant cells. On the other hand, cytokinesis begins in anaphase in the case of animal cells. Over and above, Cytokinesis happens due to the presence of cell plates in plant cells, while in the animal cells, Cytokinesis occurs through cleavage.

Cytokinesis in plant cells is the process of division of the cytoplasm into two cells. This occurs in the middle part of the cell plate of the plant, where Golgi vesicles coalesce to form phragmoplast. Following that, a cell plate is formed due to the fusion of vesicles in the cell wall. As a result, the fused vesicles form a plasma membrane to separate the cells into two. 

On the contrary, Cytokinesis in animal cells is the process of the polarisation of the cytoplasm. This process occurs due to the cortical remodelling orchestrated by the anaphase spindle through cleavage in the animal cells. A ring-like actin filament is formed at the metaphase plate, such a way that a cleavage furrow is formed, which catalyzes the division of a cell into two. 

Comparison Table Between Cytokinesis in Plant Cells and Animal Cells

Parameters of Comparison Cytokinesis in Plant CellsCytokinesis in Animal Cells
Meaning Cytokinesis in Plant cells is the process of division of the Cytoplasm in the plant, where there is a cell plate formed in the middle that separates the cells into two, which brews Cytokinesis in Plant Cells. Cytokinesis in animal cells is the process of the polarisation of the cytoplasm in the animal, where Cytokinesis happens through cleavage. 
ProcessThe process began, when a cell plate is formed, with the help of the Golgi apparatus which releases vesicles and ultimately forms a cell plate that creates division on the plant cells. The process of Cytokinesis occurs, when there is a constriction in the animal cell during late anaphase or precocious telophase. 
Formation Cytokinesis engenders vesicles in the middle of the cell during plant cells Cytokinesis.Cytokinesis in animal cells is formed by cortical remodelling orchestrated by the anaphase spindle through cleavage and actin filaments assembled together in the middle of a cell to form a contractile ring that divides two parts of cells. 
Cell wall formationCytokinesis in plant cells forms cell wallsCytokinesis in animal cells doesn’t form cell walls. 
Spindle Apparatus Spindle, the middle part of it appears active in plant cells during Cytokinesis and as a result, generates Phragmoplast.Spindle degenerates during Cytokinesis in animal cells. 
New cell membrane Vesicles of Golgi apparatus bestow new cell membranes in plant cells. The new cell membrane derives from the Endoplasmic reticulum. 

What is Cytokinesis in Plant Cells?

Cytokinesis is the second most important stage of the mitotic phase, which divides the cell by physically separating the cytoplasm components into two daughter cells. Speaking of which, Cytokinesis takes place in the middle part of the cell plate of the plant, where Golgi vesicles coalesce to form phragmoplast. Following that, a cell plate is formed due to the fusion of vesicles in the cell wall. As a result, the fused vesicles form a plasma membrane to separate the cells into two.

In simple words, the process begins with the formation of a cell plate with the aid of the Golgi apparatus, which discharges vesicles in order to form a cell plate that creates membranes for the division of the plant cells into various daughter cells. Unlike animal cell generation patterns, cytokinesis is said to be different in plant cells, and this is due to the presence of cell walls and cell membranes in the plant cells. 

On the other hand, Cytokinesis begins in prophase in plant cells, which is formed through vesicles in the centre of a cell that causes the formation of the Cell wall and ultimately engenders the division of plant cells. 

What is Cytokinesis in Animal Cells?

On the other hand, Cytokinesis in animal cells is the process of the polarisation of the cytoplasm into two cells. This process occurs due to the cortical remodelling orchestrated by the anaphase spindle through cleavage in the animal cells. A ring-like actin filament is formed at the metaphase plate, such a way that a cleavage furrow is formed, which catalyzes the division of a cell into two. 

Although, the first and foremost step for a cell undergoing cytokinesis in animals is to make sure that it occurs at the right time and in the appropriate place. Having that said, the process of Cytokinesis occurs only if there is a constriction in the animal cell during late anaphase or precocious telophase. 

Moreover, cytokinesis takes place by abiding by these four stages; initiation, contraction, membrane insertion, and completion. So accordingly, the cytokinesis takes place in such an arrangement, where anaphase spindle reorganizes initially, followed by division plane specification, actin-myosin ring assembly and contraction, and abscission, in order to divide a cell into two daughter cells. In the end, the divided daughter cells are ensured by molecular signalling pathways throughout the tight ephemeral coordination of the phases. 

Main Differences Between Cytokinesis in Plant Cells and Animal Cells

  1. Cytokinesis happens by division of the cytoplasm, which occurs by the formation of cell plates in plants, But when it comes to animal cells, Cytokinesis occurs through cleavage. 
  2. Cytokinesis in plant cells forms cell walls, whereas Cytokinesis in animal cells doesn’t.
  3. Cytokinesis in plant cells is formed through vesicles in the centre of a cell that causes the formation of the Cell wall and ultimately engenders Cytokinesis in plant cells. On the other hand, Cytokinesis in animal cells occurs through cleavage, which is caused by non-muscle myosin II and actin filaments involvement in order to form contractile rings.
  4. A new cell membrane is generated from the vesicles of Golgi. Meanwhile, Cytokinesis in animal cells produces new cell membranes from the Endoplasmic reticulum.
  5. When it comes to the spindle, the spindle middle part stays active and vigorous during cytokinesis in plant cells, but in animal cells, the Cytokinesis spindle degenerates.

Conclusion

Cytokinesis in plant cells and animal cells is completely different in formation. Cytokinesis plant cells occur during the formation of cell plates in the plate cells, which divide the cytoplasm into two parts. Cytokinesis in plant cells creates a cell wall, which is caused by vesicles fusing in the centre of the cell and ultimately Cytokinesis in plant cells. New cell membrane during Cytokinesis in plant cells generates from vesicles of Golgi.

Cytokinesis in animal cells occurs via cleavage and divides the cytoplasm into two. Besides, Cytokinesis in animal cells forms through cleavage with the help of Non-muscle myosin II and actin filaments that create contractile rings. Cytokinesis in animal cells doesn’t have cell wall formation, and new cell membrane brews from the Endoplasmic reticulum. 

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/095506749190149S
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0074769608600595
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