Germ Cells vs Somatic Cells: Difference and Comparison

Cells are an essential part of every living organism. The human body has trillions of cells that are grouped into different cells. Germs cells and somatic cells are used in transforming genes and growing organisms within the body.

Key Takeaways

  1. Germ cells are reproductive cells, whereas somatic cells are non-reproductive cells.
  2. Germ cells are haploid, meaning they contain half the number of chromosomes compared to diploid somatic cells.
  3. Germ cells undergo meiosis to produce gametes, whereas somatic cells undergo mitosis to produce new somatic cells.

Germ Cells vs Somatic Cells 

The difference between germs cells and somatic cells is that germ cells are used to produce new organisms through the process of sexual reproduction. On the other hand, somatic cells are diploid cells that are involved in asexual reproduction. They are the cells that do not contribute to generating gametes.

Germ Cells vs Somatic Cells

Germ cells are the unique cells in the human or any other living organism body that transforms genetic information from one generation to the next generation. They undergo meiosis and mitosis to generate eggs and sperm in female and male bodies. These emerge from the primitive streaks of the embryo and move to the gonads via the gut.

On the other hand, somatic cells are regular body cells that have different functional systems like digestive systems, nervous systems, cardiovascular systems, and others. Somatic cells are responsible for growing organisms.

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Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonGerm CellsSomatic Cells 
DefinitionGerm cells are the cells that reproduce new organisms through a sexual reproduction process.Somatic cells are the regular body cells that repair and reproduce the tissues.
Originated fromGerm cells are originated from primitive streaks of the embryo.Somatic cells are originated from stem cells.
FunctionGerm cells are used in producing gametes.They perform various functions in different tissues of the body.
ProcessThey undergo both mitosis and meiosis processes.They undergo the mitosis process.
MutationThe mutation is transformed from one generation to other.The mutation is not transformed to the next generation.

What are Germ Cells?

Germ cells transform the genetics from one generation to another during the reproductive process. Germ cells produce gametes to create offspring.

In humans, germ cells stem from primordial germ cells, which separate during embryogenesis to become progenitors.

Germ cells are only used in the reproductive systems undergoing meiosis to generate egg and sperm cells. The germ cells are few in number as compared to somatic cells but affect the evolution process.

Germ cells reside in the gonads. In females, the gonads are ovaries, and in males, the gonads are testes. During reproduction, the females produce gametes called eggs and male gametes called sperms.

germ cells

What are Somatic Cells?

Somatic cells are the regular body cells that arise from stem cells. In asexual reproduction, mitosis produces somatic cells that create two new cells from a mother cell.

Living organisms have various somatic cells, and their functionalities vary based on time and environmental factors. 

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Neuron cells are present in the nervous system, blood cells in the cardiovascular system, liver cells, and stomach cells form in the digestive system. Every cell in the body helps the human body to function well.

However, these cells do not contribute to evolution. These cells are essential for living organisms but are not used to produce sperm cells. They originate clones by undergoing cloning.

somatic cells

Main Differences Between Germ Cells and Somatic Cells 

  1. Germ cells undergo meiosis and mitosis processes, but somatic cells undergo only the mitosis process.
  2. Germ cells are situated in the gonads of living organisms, but somatic cells are present everywhere in the body.
Difference Between Germ Cells and Somatic Cells
References
  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160607013930
  2. http://journals.ssu.ac.ir/ijrmnew/browse.php?a_id=74
  3. https://academic.oup.com/humrep/article-abstract/21/1/30/570618

Last Updated : 25 June, 2023

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26 thoughts on “Germ Cells vs Somatic Cells: Difference and Comparison”

  1. The article is valuable in distinguishing the origins and functions of germ and somatic cells, providing a comprehensive overview of their roles in living organisms.

    Reply
    • Absolutely. It elucidates the processes of meiosis and mitosis in germ and somatic cells to highlight their individual contributions.

      Reply
  2. Understanding the differences between germ and somatic cells provides essential insights into the biological processes that sustain life. This article conveys the information effectively.

    Reply
    • Agreed. The details about the functionality and mutation processes of germ and somatic cells were well-presented.

      Reply
  3. The biological concepts related to cell reproduction were presented in such an understandable way. This article is beneficial for educational purposes.

    Reply
    • I appreciate the inclusion of references, which adds credibility to the information shared about germ and somatic cells.

      Reply
  4. This article is an excellent resource to understand the origins and functions of germ and somatic cells in living organisms.

    Reply
  5. The biological processes involved in germ and somatic cells are complex, but this article managed to simplify them so that they are easily comprehensible.

    Reply
  6. The article’s detailed explanations about germ and somatic cells are enlightening and contribute to a deeper understanding of cellular biology.

    Reply
    • The distinction between germ and somatic cells is well-illustrated, aiding in the comprehension of their respective roles in sexual and asexual reproduction.

      Reply
    • The article’s insights into the processes and functions of germ and somatic cells provide a well-rounded perspective on their significance in living organisms.

      Reply
  7. The article did a great job of breaking down the differences between germ cells and somatic cells, which are essential for every living organism.

    Reply
  8. The comparison table presented in the article is particularly useful in understanding the characteristic differences between germ and somatic cells.

    Reply
    • I agree. It serves as a quick reference to comprehend the functions and processes associated with both types of cells.

      Reply
  9. The article effectively outlines the comparative aspects of germ and somatic cells, contributing to a better understanding of their roles in living organisms.

    Reply
    • The information shared about the role of somatic cells in different tissues and systems broadens the implications of their functions.

      Reply
    • The article offers a compelling portrayal of the distinction between germ and somatic cells, emphasizing their significance in evolutionary processes.

      Reply
  10. The distinction between germ and somatic cells is fundamental in understanding the processes of sexual and asexual reproduction. This article provided a thorough overview.

    Reply

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