Difference Between Body Cells and Gametes

Human bodies are made up of nothing but small units called cells that form the basic foundation of any living body, whether plants or animals.

Cells can be of different kinds and have the ability to reproduce new cells on their own. Body cells and gametes are also types of cells that help our bodies to perform various functions.

Body Cells vs Gametes

The main difference between body cells and gametes is that body cells are regular cells, whereas gametes take part in sexual reproduction. The former is a multicellular organism, whereas the latter can either be sperm or egg cell. Both of these cells are very different though they both can multiply themselves in huge numbers.

Body Cells vs Gametes

Body cells are multicellular organisms that play a key role to help the human body grow and repair itself. It mainly forms the organism of tissues, muscles and organs.

So, these cells are involved in the asexual reproduction of organisms through a process called mitosis. Thus, body cells or somatic cells are found everywhere in the human body.

Gametes or sex cells participate in the sexual reproduction of organisms. It is of two types- sperms and eggs. These cells are haploid and contain individual chromosomes.

They originate from germ cells. It can merge with the gamete cell of the opposite sex and can only be found in the reproductive organs of the body.

Comparison Table Between Body Cells and Gametes

Parameters of ComparisonBody CellsGametes
DefinitionBody cells are regular cells that help in the growing and repairing of the body.Gametes or sex cells are part of the sexual reproduction system.
SourceThese cells come from stem cells.Gametes are originated from germ cells.
ExampleBody cells can be found in organs, muscles, tissues, etc.Gametes are found only in the reproductive organs of the body.
Nature of ReproductionThe reproduction of these cells is asexual in nature.Gametes are involved in the sexual reproduction of organisms.
ChromosomesHomologousIndividual

What are Body Cells?

Every living being’s body, whether human or animal, is made up of structures called cells. They are of two types- unicellular and multicellular.

If a living organism is made of one cell, they are called a unicellular organism. But if they consist of any number of cells, they will be multicellular organisms.

A human body is an instance of a multicellular organism. These small units make up all the parts of our body. They are very small and can only be seen under the microscope.

It can reproduce itself in large numbers. In a way, it proves that every cell in our body is born out of an existing cell.

There are 200 varieties of cells existing in our bodies that can form 20 types of structures. A body cell has an outer layer called a membrane that works like a filter allowing nutrients to enter inside and pass the waste products outside the cell.

It is the membrane that holds the cell together. 

At the centre, a cell has a nucleus. The nucleus is vital for a cell to break down together so that our body can grow and repair. Mitochondrion, another part of a cell, is also important for the absorption of oxygen that is required for breathing.

Thus, a cell performs specific functions so that our body continues to grow properly.  

What is Gametes?

Gametes are also a kind of unicellular organism that takes part in reproduction. The two gametes of sexual reproduction are sperm and eggs. The process in which a sperm is produced is called spermatogenesis.

It begins when a diploid cell forms two haploid cells after the first meiosis. The diploid cell is called primary spermatocyte, and the haploid cells are secondary spermatogenesis.

After the first meiosis, the two haploid cells have a duplicate chromatid with them. But when the second meiosis is completed, all the cells become haploids which will mature into sperms. Soon the haploid spermatids will be ready to fertilize eggs.

Now the creation of an egg is known as an ovum, and the process is called oogenesis.

The process starts with the diploid cell called the primary oocyte, and after the first meiosis, the cytoplasm is broken down unevenly as one cell gets most of the cytoplasm that is called the secondary oocyte.

The cell that receives less cytoplasm is called the polar body. After the second meiosis, the secondary oocyte is divided unevenly, and most of the cytoplasm goes to the ootid that will mature into an ovum.

This ovum will include mitochondria and other things. However, only one mature ovum will be created.

Main Differences Between Body Cells and Gametes

  1. The body cells are small units of the body that helps the body to grow and repair. Gametes are also small units of the body that take part in sexual reproduction.
  2. The process through which body cells are divided into other cells is called mitosis. Meiosis is the process by which gametes reproduce further cells.
  3. The body cells are diploid in nature, whereas gamete cells are haploid.
  4. The body cells are multicellular organisms, and gametes can only be sperm or egg cell.
  5. A body cell is called a somatic cell, and a gamete is called a sex cell.
Difference Between Body Cells and Gametes

Conclusion

These two types of cells, body cells and gametes, can reproduce their kind on their own and perform specific functions in the body that are vital.

Body cells can be found everywhere in the human body- muscles, tissues, organs and gametes are only present in the reproductive organs of both the male and female bodies.

Body cells break into more numbers cells to help the body grow, whereas sex cells help in sexual reproduction. The source of both of these cells is also different.

Regular or body cells are the byproduct of stem cells, and gametes come from germ cells. Though both of the cells are quite different from each other, they play essential roles in the full formation of a human body.

References

  1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Carminda-Cruz-Landim/publication/277226002_Morphology_and_function_of_insect_fat_body_cells_A_review/links/55acffca08ae815a042b4b03/Morphology-and-function-of-insect-fat-body-cells-A-review.pdf
  2. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30071855

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