Human bodies are made up of small units called cells that form the basic foundation of any living body, whether plants or animals.
Cells can be of different kinds and reproduce new cells independently. Body cells and gametes also help our bodies perform various functions.
- Body cells, or somatic cells, comprise most tissues and organs, whereas gametes are specialized reproductive cells for sexual reproduction.
- Body cells are diploid, containing two sets of chromosomes, while gametes are haploid, containing only one set of chromosomes.
- Gametes (sperm and eggs) are formed through meiosis, a cell division process that halves the chromosome number, while body cells are produced through mitosis, maintaining the same chromosome number.
Body Cells vs Gametes
The difference between body cells and gametes is that body cells are normal, whereas gametes participate in sexual reproduction. The former is a multicellular organism, whereas the latter can be a sperm or egg cell. These cells are very different though they can multiply themselves in huge numbers.
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Body cells are multicellular organisms that play a crucial role in helping the human body grow and repair itself. It mainly forms the organism of tissues, muscles and organs.
So, these cells are involved in the asexual reproduction of organisms through mitosis. Thus, body or somatic cells are everywhere in the human body.
Gametes, or sex cells, participate in the sexual reproduction of organisms. It is of two types- sperm and eggs. These cells are haploid and contain individual chromosomes.
They originate from germ cells. It can merge with the gamete cell of the opposite sex and can only be found in the body’s reproductive organs.
|Parameters of Comparison||Body Cells||Gametes|
|Definition||Gametes, or sex cells are part of the sexual reproduction system.||The reproduction of these cells is asexual.|
|Source||These cells come from stem cells.||Gametes are originated from germ cells.|
|Example||Body cells can be found in organs, muscles, tissues, etc.||Gametes are found only in the reproductive organs of the body.|
|Nature of Reproduction||The reproduction of these cells is asexual in nature.||Gametes are involved in the sexual reproduction of organisms.|
What are Body Cells?
Every living being’s body, whether human or animal, comprises structures called cells. They are of two types- unicellular and multicellular.
If a living organism is made of one cell, they are called a unicellular organism. But if they consist of any number of cells, they will be multicellular organisms.
The human body is an instance of a multicellular organism. These small units make up all the parts of our body. They are tiny and can only be seen under a microscope.
It can reproduce itself in large numbers. It proves that every cell in our body is born from an existing partition.
There are 200 varieties of cells existing in our bodies that can form 20 types of structures. A body cell has an outer layer called a membrane that works like a filter allowing nutrients to enter inside and pass the waste products outside the cell.
It is the membrane that holds the cell together.
At the centre, a cell has a nucleus. The nucleus is vital for a cell to break down together so our body can grow and repair. The mitochondrion, another part of a cell, is also important for the absorption of oxygen required for breathing.
Thus, a cell performs specific functions so that our body continues to grow properly.
What is Gametes?
Gametes are also a kind of unicellular organism that takes part in reproduction. The two gametes of sexual reproduction are sperm and eggs. The process in which a sperm is produced is called spermatogenesis.
It begins when a diploid cell forms two haploid cells after the first meiosis. The diploid cell is a primary spermatocyte, and the haploid cells are secondary spermatogenesis.
After the first meiosis, the two haploid cells have a duplicate chromatid. But when the second meiosis is completed, all the cells become haploids which will mature into sperms. Soon the haploid spermatids will be ready to fertilize eggs.
Now the creation of an egg is known as an ovum, and the process is called oogenesis.
The process starts with the diploid cell, called the primary oocyte. After the first meiosis, the cytoplasm is broken down unevenly as one cell gets most of the cytoplasm, which is called the secondary oocyte.
The cell that receives less cytoplasm is called the polar body. After the second meiosis, the secondary oocyte is divided unevenly, and most of the cytoplasm goes to the ootid, which will mature into an ovum.
This ovum will include mitochondria and other things. However, only one mature ovum will be created.
Main Differences Between Body Cells and Gametes
- The body cells are small units of the body that helps the body to grow and repair. Gametes are also small body units that participate in sexual reproduction.
- Mitosis is the process through which body cells are divided into other cells. Meiosis is the process by which gametes reproduce further cells.
- The body cells are diploid, whereas gamete cells are haploid.
- The body cells are multicellular organisms, and gametes can only be sperm or egg cell.
- A body cell is called a somatic cell, and a gamete is called a sex cell.
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.