The whole world has an ecosystem, where plants play the role of producers and animals play the role of Consumers. Hence their activities and differences along with cell structure. Well, before that, one should know that a cell is a fundamental unit and all cells carry all the activities.
The structure of a cell is classified based on the functions they perform. A basic difference between plant cell and animal cell is the cell composition.
Hence all the functions and structures differ. Every cell has organelles that perform specific functions. Various organelles are present in both animal cells and plant cells, whereas some are present in either of them. A most important difference between plant cell and animal cell is that animal cell does not have a cell wall whereas plant cell does have a cell wall.
Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
The difference between Plant Cell and Animal Cell is their shapes. The plant cell has a rectangle or foursquare in its form. Conversely, an animal cell is oblong or uncertain. Plant cells do have cell walls, but animal cells do not. The former does not contain centrosomes. On the opposite, the latter does. Cells of animals have more number of mitochondria, whereas plants’ cells have less.
Comparison Table Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell (in Tabular Form)
|Parameter of Comparison||Animal Cell||Plant Cell|
|Cell Shape||Irregular or round shape||Square of rectangular shape|
|Cell||It is absent||It is present|
|Mode of Nutrition||It is Heterotrophic in nature, hence it depends on plants for food||It is autotrophic hence it prepares food on its own.|
What is Plant Cell?
Plant cells are eukaryotic cells, which are composed of a nucleus and well-structured organelle, that perform specific functions. Plant cells do have cell membranes and cell walls, unlike animal cells.
Plant Cell Shape: the shape of the plant cell is comparatively larger than the animal cell and rectangular shape. Plant and animal cells do share common cell organelles, hence plant cells are distinctive when compared with functions they perform.
Just like animal cells, plant cell structure has various components known as cell organelles performing specific functions.
Some of the cell organelles in Plant Cell are:
- Cell Wall
- Cell Membrane
- Central Vacuole
- Golgi Apparatus
Different types of plant cells.
Plant Cells are matured and they are specialized in performing specific functions. Several plant cells are involved in the transportation of water and nutrients whereas some of them store food. Different specialized plant cells are Xylem Cells, Phloem Cells, Collenchyma cells, Sclerenchyma cells, parenchyma cells.
Functions of plant cells.
Plant cells are known as building blocks of different plants. One of the major functions performed by a plant cell is photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis occurs in plant cells in the chloroplast. It is a process by which plants prepare their food by using components like carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight. The product of this process is Energy in the form of ATP.
What is Animal Cell?
An animal is a eukaryotic cell that does not have any cell wall but it has a membrane-bounded nucleus and various cell organelles. The Size of an animal cell is a few millimeters to microns.
The largest animal Cell is the present ostrich egg, which weighs about 1.4 KG and 5.1 inches in length. Animal cells vary with shape, there are some cells which are rod speed, oval and flat.
Also, there are many unique shapes like rectangular, concave and spherical shapes. Since animal cells are microscopic hence it is seen only under a microscope.
Animal cells are eukaryotic which do have nucleus bound with members. All animals exhibit DNA present in the nucleus. Animal cells do have various organelles and every organelle carries out a specific function.
Animal Cells are smaller in size than plant cells and irregular shapes. The reason behind irregular shape is the absence of a cell wall. Various cell organelles in Animal cells are as follows.
- Cell Membrane
- Nuclear Membrane
- Golgi Apparatus
- Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)
There are several animal cells, and each one of them performs a specific function.
Main Differences Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell
- A major difference between the plant cell and animal cells is that animal cells are round in shape whereas plant cells have a rectangular shape. Animal cells do not have a cell wall whereas plant cells do have rigid cell walls.
- Since all plants are autotrophs, hence they produce their food by the photosynthesis process. This process is carried out by special cell organelles called chloroplast which is only present in the plant cells. Animal cell food is produced by cellular respiration. In Animals, mitochondria is a cell organelle where cellular respiration takes place.
- Only specific plant cells, such as ginkgo, cycads, seedless vascular, bryophytes, and charophytes have centrioles whereas all the animal cells have centrioles.
- In animal cells, you will find more than values of small size, whereas plant cells have a huge cell vacuole, which takes almost 90% of volume. Vacuoles maintain cell turgidity and store water, whereas animal cells store waste, ions, and water.
- Well, another cell organelle called Lysosomes, is present in animal cells, but its presence in the plant cell is doubtful.
All species, whether they are plants or animals, cells the basic unit of life that builds the organism. Both plant cell and animal cell perform the same task of building an organism, but they differ a lot.
Due to differences, both animal cells and plant cells perform different functions and hence they are further classified as heterotrophs and autotrophs.
A heterotroph is a term given to animals since they are not able to make food on their own and they depend on plants for food. Whereas plant cells are autotrophs since they can make their food.
Plant cells can make their food since their cell has a cell organelle called chloroplast that performs the process of photosynthesis. Like this, many organelles are present in animals but not in plants and vice versa.
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