Pump vs Motor: Difference and Comparison

Mechanical engineering is concerned with designing and operating mechanical devices that are primarily powered.


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Mechanical devices are vital pieces of equipment utilized in multiple engineering professions, including civil engineering, automobile engineering, and many more.

We need to understand the two mechanical types of equipment.

Pumps and motors are mechanical devices that use electricity and are essential components of most electronic devices.

Pumps primarily function to raise or move the level of liquids.

Most motors are present in every machine, such as vehicles, heating devices, cooling devices, electronic toys, electronic kitchen appliances, and many other machines.

Key Takeaways

  1. A pump moves fluids by mechanical action, while a motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy to power devices.
  2. Pumps are used in water distribution and cooling systems, whereas motors drive machines and appliances.
  3. Pumps can be classified as centrifugal or positive displacement, while motors are categorized as AC or DC.

Pump vs Motor

A pump is a machine that uses pressure and flow to transport fluids (such as liquids and gases) from one location to another. A motor is a machine that converts electrical or other forms of energy into mechanical motion and is commonly used to power pumps and other sorts of machinery.

Pump vs Motor

The pump works on the principle of rotatory motion or linear motion. It is for raising the level of the substances (liquid, gases, and slurry).

We can say that it converts linear force into hydraulic energy by using suction. The suction creates a partial vacuum which creates pressure to lift the liquid.

The motor works on the principle of the law of electromagnetic induction and causes the conversion of electronic energy into mechanical energy. Motors can be controlled manually, electrically, or remotely.

It also works on the rotary motion by working on both alternative current (AC) and direct current (DC). Motors also consist of coils to create an electromagnetic field.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonPumpMotor
PurposeIt is for the smooth flow of liquid and gaseous substances.It is for operating electronic devices.
PrincipleIt uses kinetic energy for creating pressure.It uses the principle of Faraday law of electromagnetic induction.
Input-OutputIt receives input as mechanical energy and output as hydraulic energy.It received input as electricity and output as mechanical energy in rotation.
Used inIrrigation, Gasoline supply.Fans, Automobiles, etc.
Mainly Consists ofMainly Consists of Inlet, Outlet, and Casing is part of a pump.Magnets and Coils are there in a motor.

What is a Pump?

A pump is a device that uses mechanical energy from electricity or manual labor to enhance the flow of fluids such as liquids, liquid-solid mixtures, and gases from one location to another.

It means the conversion of mechanical force by using kinetic energy into energy produced by water.

Each pump has three parts: an inlet, an outlet, and a casing. The substance enters the pump through the inlet. This side of the pump is known as the suction side.

The pressure at the liquid in the inlet is the lowest. The liquid is present in the casing section during operation.

Furthermore, the casing houses all of the interior components. The liquid is ejected from the outlet (discharge side). During the release, the substance is at its highest pressure.

Generally, there are two types of pumps in industries. A positive displacement pump and a dynamic pump are two types of pumps.

Both pumps have different internal workings. A positive displacement pump generally traps a fixed amount of liquid in the casing and enhances the pressure of that substance.

Several positive displacement pumps have an increasing cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side.

In the case of the dynamic pump, velocity or pressure is added to the fluid when it passes through the pump impeller (rotating iron). Subsequently, velocity is converted into the additional pressure to flow the liquids.

What is a Motor?

A motor is a mechanical device used in almost every machine which operates with electricity or without electricity.

When you start a motor, electrical energy is converted into a combination of kinetic (motion) and potential energy (stored energy).

A rectangular coil insulated with a copper wire is part of a motor. This coil is present between the two poles of electric energy.

Additionally, the ends of the coil are attached to the split rings, which are in turn attached to the axle (rod).

A source battery powers the current that travels through the conducting brush and into the coil to start a motor. Later, it returns to a battery via the other conducting brush. Some motors run on AC, while others run on DC.

Alternative current motor is of two types (synchronous and asynchronous) used in many appliances. A synchronous motor is used the least compared to an asynchronous, also called an induction motor.

Synchronous motors are present in machines that run at a set pace or have a fixed revolution per minute (rpm).

As a result, it’s embedded in printing presses and power plants. However, induction motors are commonly used motors in fans, water pumps, etc.

Direct current motors work on the simple method and are present in cooking inductions, elevators, cranes, driers, etc.

Main Differences Between Pump and Motor

  1. A pump is constructed for the flow of fluids. However, a motor is for starting the gadget on electricity.
  2. A pump can be a positive displacement or a dynamic pump, each with its own set of workings. On the other hand, the motor comes in multiple types (synchronous, asynchronous, permanent magnetic, series motor, and compound motor).
  3. A pump’s principle is based on kinetic and potential energy. On the contrary, the motor works on the electromagnetic field.
  4. A pump can be present in shampoo bottles (manual) and water pumps (electrical). However, a motor is present in machines.
  5. A pump mostly takes the aid of a motor to start. On the other hand, the motor takes the assistance of either alternating current or direct current to run.
Difference Between Pump and Motor
  1. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/isfp1989/2008/7-1/2008_7-1_59/_article/-char/ja/
  2. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:479598

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