Difference Between Radial Tires and Bias Tires (With Table)

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In the contemporary world, several vehicles are roaming on the roads to carry people or goods. The tires play an important role in each vehicle. They are ring-shaped components and surround a wheel’s rim. With the improvement in technology, more wheels were also developed and updated.   

When it’s time to choose the right tire for a vehicle then needs more matter than size. In the market, there are different tires with different construction are available. Radial tire and bias tire are two of the tires with several distinctions. 

Radial Tires vs Bias Tires 

The main difference between radial tires and bias tires is their construction. Radial tires are made by crisscrossing steel belts beneath the tread. On the other hand, bias tires are constructed with crisscrossing cords of nylon and polyester belts. The tread and sidewall of the radial tire function independently. But due to multiple overlapping rubber piles in bias tires, they connect the tread and sidewall.

There is a rubber-coated steel belts layer on the outside casing of the radial tire. This layer consisted of rubber-coated steel inserted into the rubber and known as piles. The piles run radially and start at the center.  

This design of tire is also known as cross-ply tire. The main cords or piles of bias tires run across the bead. The piles run at degrees of 45 to the tread centerline. A small tire can carry more weight compared to the similar size of radial time. 

Comparison Table Between Radial Tires and Bias Tires 

Parameters of ComparisonRadial TiresBias Tires
OriginIn 1956In 1969
InventorArthur William SavageThe Michelin Brothers
UsageRegularInfrequent
TripsLong tripsShort trips
Contact with groundMoreLess

What are Radial Tires? 

A radial is a specific vehicular tire design. The cord piles of this design are arranged at degrees of 90 to the direction of travel. In North America, the construction market share of this tire climbed to 100%. The consumer’s report finds the superiority of this design in 1968.  

The steel wires in tiers become magnetized with the usage, and there is a creation of an alternating magnetic field as they rotate. With the help of an EMF meter, it is quite measurable, which is close to the wheel by its rotation. These tire designs are ideal for sports vehicles and also for vehicles with extremely rigid chassis.

The radial tire tread does a better job of road-gripping and also provides improved maneuverability and durability. They are more flexible and gives a more comfortable ride due to their pile’s movement radially instead of diagonally from bead to bead around the tire. In terms of high speeds, for more powerful vehicles radial tires become necessary.

Radial tires provide a thick shoulder to protect the interior from damage and shocks. Less fuel is used on radial tires due to rolling resistance. Because this tire generates less heat, it lasts longer. They also provide less vibration and more stability. 

What are Bias Tires? 

Bias tire possesses piles that run across the width of a tier diagonally. Underneath the sidewall and tread, these diagonal piles crisscross and run from bead to bead. These piles generally run between the angles of 30 and 40 degrees.  

The advantage of using this tire is to ride comfortably. Bias tires can tackle roads with rough texture without sacrificing ride comfort. But the rolling resistance is diminished because of the construction of angled ply. The cord of these tires is generally made of synthetic fabrics like polyether. It is more resistant to cuts and impacts. When this tire runs on a rough road, then its carcass demonstrates features like endurance and strength.

Ride comfort was of more concern compared to rolling resistance when this tire was developed. Only short distances were preferred by people. The environmental concern was not widespread as a result, at that time, fuel was cheap. Later, the perfection and development of radial tires surpass the performance capability of this tire.

But still, bias tires in the contemporary world are manufactured and used on several tractors or heavy machinery. Some of the drawbacks of bias tires are weak grip, large weight, shortened operational lifetime, low wear resistance, lower load-carrying capacity, difficult car handling, and the carcass made of synthetic materials.

Main Differences Between Radial Tires and Bias Tires 

  1. Radial tires are made by crisscrossing steel belts beneath the tread. On the flip side, bias tires are constructed with crisscrossing cords of nylon and polyester belts.  
  2. With the tread line, the steel belts of radial tires run at a 90-degree angle. But the nylon belts of bias tires run at an angle of 30 to 45-degree with the tread line.  
  3. Radial tires are ideal for sports vehicles and also for vehicles with extremely rigid chassis, whereas bias tires are ideal for small or medium-sized engines vehicles that move at moderate speed.  
  4. When it comes to high speeds, for more powerful vehicles radial tires become necessary. But bias tires at high speed have poor traction and are more prone to fuel consumption and overheating.  
  5. The tread and sidewall of the radial tire function independently, whereas due to multiple overlapping rubber piles in bias tires, they connect the tread and sidewall. 

Conclusion 

It can be concluded that both radial and bias tires are still relevant. They both are used in different vehicles due to their different construction and features. Radial tires are made by crisscrossing steel belts beneath the tread. On the other hand, bias tires are constructed with crisscrossing cords of nylon and polyester belts.  

The radial tire can be used on regular basis, while Bias tires are used infrequently. Radial tires have more contact with the ground. On the flip side, bias tires have less contact with the ground. If someone is looking for long trips to travel then radial tires are preferred, whereas for short trips bias tires are better.   

References 

  1. https://meridian.allenpress.com/rct/article-abstract/54/3/461/91364
  2. https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/690522/
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