Difference Between Sensory and Motor Neurons (With Table)

Our body consists of various organs that help in functioning. Our works are depending on the body functioning. Neurons are the cells that function in our bodies. Sensory and Motor are the types of neuron cells that handle the nervous system in our body.

Sensory Neurons vs Motor Neurons  

The difference between Sensory Neurons and Motor Neurons is that Sensory Neurons will activate by the input from the environment. In Contrast, Motor neurons had located in the nervous system that controls the different downstream targets. The structure and processing of both Sensory and Motor Neurons are different.  

Sensory Neurons are the neuron cells that activate the sensory cells from environments. The activities from the environment go into our body through sensory neurons. Later, it sends the signals to the nervous system about the information that they had received. The cells of the Sensory Neurons had located in the Spinal cord.  

Motor Neurons are the nerve cells that had located in the Nervous System. Motor Neurons helps in controlling the various downstream targets. Motor Neurons had connected to muscles, organs and glands in a living body and control all the movements of the muscles. Motor Neurons that appears in the spinal cord are the segment of the Nervous System.

Comparison Table Between Sensory and Motor Neurons  

Parameters of Comparison     Sensory Neurons  Motor Neurons 
Meaning    Sensory neurons are the cells that function in a living body.
Motor Neurons are the cells that control the body functioning.
Location    Sensory Neurons had placed in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord of an individual.
Motor Neurons had located in the spinal cord that connects with the nervous system.
CommandsSensory Neurons controls the cells help to find the senses in the spinal cord.Motor Neurons control the muscles, organs, glands and control muscle movements.
Function  Sensory Neurons activates from the surroundings and send signals to the nervous system that the information they had received.Motor Neurons located in the nervous system transmit to the organs, glands and controls all the muscular movements.
Difference   
 
Sensory Nerve cells are comprising a short axon, and their function is different.Motor Neurons comprise a long axon compared with Sensory Neurons.

What are Sensory Neurons?  

Sensory Neurons are the cells that activate by the sensory input that getting from the environment activities. The activated senses from the surroundings will carry close to the sensory neurons, and the sensory cells send the received signals to the nervous system. These neuron cells had located in the dorsal ganglia in the spinal cord. The Sensory Neurons cells in the spinal cord of the human body had used to connect with the nervous system. The primary function of the sensory neuron is to inform the senses to the nervous system which had received by them. Sensory neurons play a vital role in the human body. The sensory information travels to the afferent nerve cells in a sensory nerve and the brain through the spinal cord. 

Sensory Neurons are of five types that help in functioning. The 5 classes of sensory neurons are; 

  • Mechanoreceptors 
  • Thermoreceptors 
  • Nociceptors 
  • Electromagnetic receptors 
  • Chemoreceptors 

The above classes are the cells had divided on the location, morphology and depending on their response. Brain Neurons involves in sensory processing where the visual or auditory cortex will respond by the sensory neurons. The neurons communicate, and an electrical impulse releases the neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters reach to bind the Special Molecules bypassing the synapse. These Special Molecules are known as receptors, and these receptors had located in dendrites that receive and pass the message. Sensory receptors had figured in the six layers of the skin. Sensory nerves activate the inputs like 

  1. Touching a hot surface 
  2. Experiencing coldness 
  3. Can find sweat  

Many senses are getting into the brain through the sensory nerves. We can find the sensory nerves in the retina of the eye, olfactory epithelium and ganglia. 

What are Motor Neurons?  

Motor Neurons are the nerve cells that had located in the nervous system. Motor Neurons helps in controlling the downstream targets of the nervous system. Motor Neurons had connected to muscles, organs and glands in a living body and control all the movements of the muscles. Motor Neuron cells that are present in the spinal cord are the segment of the Nervous System. Motor Neurons are sizeable cells in the ventral horn part and had located in the spinal cord and has dendrites. A large number of processes called dendrites helps in sending the signals to Motor Neurons. The Motor neuron processes control all the movements of muscles. Motor Neurons had known as specialized neurons had located in our human body of the spinal cord and, the brain. The Upper Motor Neurons cells usually exist in the brain travels downward to connect with the Lower part of the Motor Neurons.

The process and construction of the Motor Neurons cells are different from the sensory nervous system. Motor nerves comprise a long axon. Motor nerves help to carry the signals from the central system to the body parts. The two subtypes of Motor Neurons are Upper Motor Neurons and Lower Motor Neurons had present in an individual body. The above sub-types had located in the brain of living beings. The upper motor neurons start to travel from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord of our body. There are 5,00,000 Motor Neurons in the human body, and it carries from the central nervous to the organ systems.

Main Differences Between Sensory and Motor Neurons  

  1. Sensory Neurons had existed in the spinal cord of living bodies, where Motor Neurons had transmitted from the middle of the nervous system. 
  2. Sensory Neurons inform the signs from body parts to the Nervous System. In Contrast, Motor Neurons will inform from the Central Nervous System to the body parts.
  3. Sensory Neuron cells control the senses, where Motor Neurons controls muscle movements. 
  4. We find both Sensory and Motor Neurons in the spinal cord in our body, but both are different in their way of functioning.
  5. Sensory Neurons involves in short axon where Motor Neurons includes long axons

Conclusion  

Sensory Neurons are the cells that activate by the sensory input that getting from the environment activities. The activities from the environment go into our body through sensory neurons. Later, it sends the signals to the nervous system about the information that they had received.

Motor Neurons are the nerve cells that had located in the nervous system. Motor Neurons had connected to muscles, organs and glands in a living body and control all the movements of the muscles.

References

  1. https://www.jbc.org/article/S0021-9258(18)92088-0/abstract
  2. https://www.jneurosci.org/content/17/1/470.short
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394016308436
x
2D vs 3D