Difference Between Sensory and Motor Neurons

Our body consists of various organs that help in functioning. Our works are depending on the body functioning. Neurons are the cells that function in our bodies.


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Sensory Neurons vs Motor Neurons  

The difference between Sensory Neurons and Motor Neurons is that Sensory Neurons will activate by the input from the environment. In Contrast, Motor neurons had located in the nervous system that controls the different downstream targets. The structure and processing of both Sensory and Motor Neurons are different.  

Sensory Neurons vs Motor Neurons

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Sensory Neurons are the neuron cells that activate the sensory cells from environments. The activities from the environment go into our body through sensory neurons. 

Motor Neurons are the nerve cells that had located in the Nervous System. Motor Neurons helps in controlling the various downstream targets.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonSensory Neurons  Motor Neurons 
Meaning    Sensory neurons are the cells that function in a living body.
Motor Neurons are the cells that control the body functioning.
Location    Sensory Neurons had placed in the dorsal ganglia of the spinal cord of an individual.
Motor Neurons had located in the spinal cord that connects with the nervous system.
CommandsSensory Neurons controls the cells help to find the senses in the spinal cord.Motor Neurons control the muscles, organs, glands and control muscle movements.
Function  Sensory Neurons activates from the surroundings and send signals to the nervous system that the information they had received.Motor Neurons located in the nervous system transmit to the organs, glands and controls all the muscular movements.
Sensory Nerve cells are comprising a short axon, and their function is different.Motor Neurons comprise a long axon compared with Sensory Neurons.

What are Sensory Neurons?  

Sensory Neurons are the cells that activate by the sensory input that getting from the environment activities.

These neuron cells had located in the dorsal ganglia in the spinal cord. The Sensory Neurons cells in the spinal cord of the human body had used to connect with the nervous system.

Sensory Neurons are of five types that help in functioning. The 5 classes of sensory neurons are; 

  • Mechanoreceptors 
  • Thermoreceptors 
  • Nociceptors 
  • Electromagnetic receptors 
  • Chemoreceptors 

The above classes are the cells had divided on the location, morphology and depending on their response. Brain Neurons involves in sensory processing where the visual or auditory cortex will respond by the sensory neurons.

The neurons communicate, and an electrical impulse releases the neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters reach to bind the Special Molecules bypassing the synapse.

  1. Touching a hot surface 
  2. Experiencing coldness 
  3. Can find sweat  

Many senses are getting into the brain through the sensory nerves. We can find the sensory nerves in the retina of the eye, olfactory epithelium and ganglia. 

sensory neurons

What are Motor Neurons?  

Motor Neurons are the nerve cells that had located in the nervous system. Motor Neurons helps in controlling the downstream targets of the nervous system.

Motor Neurons had connected to muscles, organs and glands in a living body and control all the movements of the muscles.

The process and construction of the Motor Neurons cells are different from the sensory nervous system.There are 5,00,000 Motor Neurons in the human body, and it carries from the central nervous to the organ systems.

motor neurons

Main Differences Between Sensory and Motor Neurons  

  1. We find both Sensory and Motor Neurons in the spinal cord in our body, but both are different in their way of functioning.
  2. Sensory Neurons involves in short axon where Motor Neurons includes long axons. 
Difference Between Sensory and Motor Neurons
  1. https://www.jbc.org/article/S0021-9258(18)92088-0/abstract
  2. https://www.jneurosci.org/content/17/1/470.short
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394016308436
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