Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) vs Principal Component Analysis (PCA): Difference and Comparison

The singular value decomposition (SVD) is among the most extensively used and all-purpose helpful features in numerical linear algebra for data acquisition, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) is a well-established method that has introduced a lot of theories about statistics.

In particular, PCA provides us with a data-driven hierarchical coordinate system.

Key Takeaways

  1. SVD is a matrix factorization technique that applies to any matrix, while PCA is a linear transformation specific to covariance matrices.
  2. PCA is used for data compression and feature extraction, whereas SVD has various applications in signal processing, data mining, and information retrieval.
  3. SVD does not require centered data, while PCA works best with centered and normalized data.

Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) vs Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is a factorization method in linear algebra that can decompose any real or complex matrix. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses SVD or eigen decomposition on the covariance or correlation matrix to identify principal components.

Singular Value Decomposition SVD vs Principal Component Analysis PCA

The singular value decomposition (SVD) is the most extensively used feature in numerical linear algebra. It aids in the reduction of data into the key features required for analysis, understanding, and description.

The svd is one of the first elements in most data preprocessing and machine learning algorithms for data reduction in particular. The SVD is a data-driven Fourier transform generalization.

The principal component analysis (PCA) is now a statistical tool that has spawned numerous ideas. This will allow us to use a hierarchical set of points to express statistical changes.

PCA is a statistical/machine intelligence technique used to determine the major data patterns that maximize overall variation. So the maximum variance is captured by a coordinate system depending on the data’s directions.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonSingular Value Decomposition (SVD)Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
RequirementsAbstract mathematics, matrix decomposition, and quantum physics all require SVD. Statistics are particularly effective in PCA for analyzing data from the research.
ExpressionFactoring algebraic expressions.similar to approximating factorized expressions.
MethodsIt is a method in abstract mathematics and matrix decomposition.It is a method in Statistics/Machine Learning.
BranchHelpful in the branch of mathematics.Helpful in the branch of mathematics.
InventionThe SVD was invented by Eugenio Beltrami and Camille Jordan.The PCA was invented by Karl Pearson.

What is Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)?

The SVD is strongly linked to the part of a positive definite Matrix’s eigenvalue and eigenvector factorization.

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Although not all matrices may be factorized as pt, any m×n matrix A can be factorized by permitting it on the left and PT on the right to be any two orthogonal matrices U and vt (not necessarily transpose of each other).

This type of special factorization is known as SVD.

The sine and cosine expansions are used in all mathematics to approximate functions, and FT is one of the most useful transformations. There are also Bessel and Airy functions, as well as spherical harmonics.

And, in the previous generation of computer science and engineering, this mathematical model mathematical transformation was used to transfer a system of interest into a new coordinate system.

One of the prominent algorithms is SVD. One could use linear algebra to generate revenue.

One of the most useful aspects of using linear algebra to make a profit is that it is widespread since it is based on very simple and readable linear algebra that can be used at any time.

If you have a Data Matrix, you can compute the svd and get interpretable and intelligible features from which you can create models. It’s also scalable, thus it can be used on very big data sets.

Every matrix factor is divided into three parts, which is known as u Sigma v transpose. An orthogonal Matrix is a component u. The diagonal Matrix is the factor Sigma.

The factor v transpose is likewise an orthogonal Matrix, making it orthogonal diagonal or physically stretching and rotating.

Each Matrix is factored into an orthogonal Matrix by multiplying it by a diagonal Matrix (the singular value) by another orthogonal Matrix: rotation, time stretch, times rotation.

What is Principal Component Analysis (PCA)?

PCA is a well-established method that has introduced a lot of theories about statistics.  It is equivalent to approximating a factorized statement by maintaining the ‘largest’ terms and eliminating all smaller’ terms.

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It is a well-established method that has introduced a lot of theories about statistics. In particular, PCA provides us with a data-driven hierarchical coordinate system.

Principal component analysis (PCA) is referred to as appropriate orthogonal decomposition. PCA is a method for identifying patterns in data by defining them in terms of similarities and differences.

In PCA, there is a data matrix X that contains a collection of measurements from different experiments, and two independent experiments are represented as large row factors at x1,x2, and so on.

PCA is a dimensionality reduction approach that can aid in the reduction of the dimensions of data sets used in machine learning training. It alleviates the dreaded dimensionality curse.

PCA is a method for determining the most important characteristics of a principal component that have the greatest influence on the target variable. PCA develops a new feature principle component.

Main Differences Between Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

  1. SVD is directly comparable to factoring algebraic expressions, whereas PCA is equivalent to approximating a factorized statement by maintaining the ‘largest’ terms and eliminating all smaller’ terms.
  2. Values in SVD are consistent numbers, and factorization is the process of decomposing them, whereas PCA is a statistical/machine intelligence way to determine the main aspects.
  3. The decomposition of the matrix into ortho-normal areas is known as SVD, whereas PCA can be calculated using SVD, although it is higher priced.
  4. SVD is among the most extensively used and all-purpose helpful features in numerical linear algebra for data acquisition, whereas PCA is a well-established method that has introduced a lot of theories about statistics.
  5. SVD is one of the prominent algorithms, whereas PCA is a dimensionality reduction approach.
References
  1. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/acisc/2021/6686759/
  2. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1198/106186007X256080

Last Updated : 13 July, 2023

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