Difference Between Study and Experiment (With Table)

Study and Experiment are two terms that differ in their process. The study is to observe, memorize, and gain knowledge through existing material. An experiment is a type of scientific method where things or facts are proven in a controlled environment.

Study vs Experiment

The difference between study and experiment is that study is all about surveying, analyzing, and interpreting data, whereas the experiment is the conclusion of any effect on an object. The results that are obtained from the study are weak, and the results obtained from the experiment are stronger and are near to the facts as well.

The study is to observe the people, animals, or objects in the environment which is not manipulated. The members included in the survey are not affected. For example, the survey was conducted on the eating habits of people in a particular area.

The experiment involves a set pattern of the process that may involve some equipment, and the environment is also manipulated by the researcher. An experiment requires more time to provide a result, and the result obtained after an experiment is very strong and cannot be challenged easily. 

Comparison Table Between Study and Experiment

Parameters of ComparisonStudyExperiment
DefinitionIt is about surveying, analyzing, and interpreting the desired effect on people, animals, or objects.It is concluding any effect on an object in controlled setups.
ReliabilityResults obtained by the study are weak.Results of the experiment are stronger and near to facts.
PeriodThe study of cause and effect is performed in a short period.An experiment requires more time to provide a result.
CharacteristicThere is no manipulation of the environment in the Study.The experiment needs intervention in the natural environment.
CostThe study is economical as it does not need many physical objects.Experiments are costly because of the involvement of many types of equipment.

What is Study?

The study is a method to gain more knowledge about any topic. It involves various aspects like our environment, health, growth, eating habits, etc. It involves a meticulous observation, investigation, and analysis of the cause without affecting the natural environment of their subjects. The study works on a hypothesis where variables are observed based on cause and effect. The cause is not introduced, and there is no independent variable in the study. However, a group can be asserted for comparison called a control group or standard group.

The study can be of many types. In a cohort study, a group of people with common characteristics are surveyed. Age, gender are included in this category. In a case-control study, one group with a specific cause is compared with one without the cause. Effects of diseases are investigated under this type of study.

The study on the subjects is quite open and broad. It includes a group that comes in almost the same age group or having the same condition at a particular time. The result of the study is not reliable because they are riddled with baffling biases and misleading data. In a study, the investigator has no control over participants. For example, the time spent by children of age group 10-15 on social media is not affected by the researcher’s opinion.

What is Experiment?

An experiment is a scientific method in which the researcher works on a hypothesis, inserts a cause, and studies the effect of a variable on the other. The cause is called the independent variable, and the other object of investigation is called a dependent variable. To study the effect of an independent variable, only a group of subjects is kept as a controlled group in which the cause is not administered. Otherwise, various other effects may hamper the result and provide wrong conclusions.

For example, an experiment is conducted that carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis. For this similar type of plant is taken and is kept in the dark to utilize the storage starch, then one plant is kept as a controlled object, and the other is deprived of carbon dioxide to find whether food is prepared by the plant or not.

Experiments are very specific and target-oriented. The condition for the experiment is manipulated. The requirement of materials is also the main part of investigating the causes. So controlled environment, labs, and various equipment make the experimental study costlier. In addition to this, researchers need a long period to draw any conclusions. But the results of the experiment are very strong, and it is difficult to challenge them.

Main Differences Between Study and Experiment

  1. The study is to gain knowledge about a phenomenon by reading, observing, and analyzing the cause, whereas the Experiment is to test and verify the hypothesis in controlled conditions.
  2. In the study, the standard or control group is made from the natural environment, whereas in the experiment control group is created by keeping other variables fixed.
  3. Sample size in a study is chosen from a particular type of group, whereas in an experiment subject is not of a particular type. This helps the researcher to obtain a trustworthy result.
  4. In the study, the subject is kept in their natural environment. There is no meddling with surroundings, and this makes the study easier, whereas, in the Experiment, researchers manipulate the environment as required. They also use some material to create that atmosphere. This makes the experiment tougher.
  5. The study can be conducted on any topic because it does not change the natural environment, whereas the experiment covers a limited area of research.

Conclusion

Study and experiment are two complementary fields. For an experiment to conduct, there is a need to know that subject, and without an experiment, the study has no reliability. However, some experiments are not performed on medical or ethical grounds, but studies can be carried out on that topic. The results of the study are weak and not as reliable as the results of the experiments. In short, we can say that experiments are more scientific and follow a particular set of protocols when placed alongside study.

Moreover, the study can be conducted on any topic as the natural environment is not changing, whereas the experiment is the area of research. The study is something that gains knowledge about the phenomenon by reading, interrupting, and analyzing the cause, whereas the experiment involves the test and hypothesis in a controlled manner.           

References     

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0017931015312084
  2. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0305-4608/11/1/015/meta
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