Difference Between Thyroid and Parathyroid (With Table)

The population is small compared to the diseases in the world. Around 10,000 diseases are rare and incurable. The diseases are categorised in many ways. They are infectious, deficiency, hereditary, genetic, non-genetic, and physiological. Many diseases still have no medical treatment available for those diseases. The thyroid is the most common disease among women than men. It needs lifelong treatment.

Thyroid vs Parathyroid

The difference between thyroid and parathyroid is their position. The thyroid is a gland endocrine system that secretes thyroid hormone. The parathyroid is also a gland of the endocrine system that secretes parathyroid hormone. The thyroid and parathyroid are present in the neck region. The thyroid presents in front, and the parathyroid is present in the back of the thyroid glands. Only one large thyroid is present but, four parathyroid glands are present in the neck region.

The thyroid gland is playing a vital role in thyroid disease. Thyroid disease is due to many reasons hormonal malfunctions, emotional reflections, genetic disorders, psychological effects. The production of thyroid hormone and its quantity in your body reflects thyroid disease. There are two types of thyroid diseases based on their secretion. They are hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

The parathyroid is a gland present in the back of the neck or back of the thyroid gland. It is also a gland in the endocrine system. The parathyroid glands play the role of balancing the minerals and vitamins in the body. The parathyroid gland secretes a parathyroid hormone that reflects the balancing process. The enormous secretion of the parathyroid hormone causes hyperparathyroidism in the body. The less secretion of parathyroid reflects hyperparathyroidism.

Comparison Table Between Thyroid and Parathyroid

Parameters of ComparisonThyroidParathyroid
DefinitionThe thyroid is a gland of the endocrine system present in the front of the neck.The parathyroid is a gland present in the back of the thyroid gland.
Hormone secretionThyroid hormoneParathyroid hormone
Numbers availableOnly one thyroid glandFour parathyroid glands
LobesTwo lobes in butterfly structureNo lobes are in parathyroid
RegulationRegulates metabolism in the bodyRegulates the calcium and mineral levels in the body
DisordersHyperthyroidism and hypothyroidismHyperparathyroidism and hyperparathyroidism.

What is Thyroid?

The endocrine system is one of the major systems in the human body. It contains the thyroid gland that secretes thyroid hormone, which has triiodothyronine and thyroxin. The thyroid must be at the correct level. The change in levels reflects in the entire body. The thyroid is present below the voice box facing the front of the neck. It has two lobes and one large thyroid gland.

Isthmus is a tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid that looks like a butterfly. Colloid-filled follicles created the region of the thyroid. It is made of iodine molecules and surrounded by epithelial cells. Triiodothyronine and thyroxin are the units present in the thyroid hormone. Three iodine molecules are present in triiodothyronine, and four iodine molecules are present in thyroxin. Goiter, thyroiditis, graves disease, thyroid cancer, and thyroid nodules are a few diseases caused by the thyroid gland.

Hypothalamus and pituitary gland are present in the brain playing the negative feedback mechanism. That controls the thyroid hormone secreted by the endocrine system. If blood plasma contains less thyroid hypothalamus induce the secretion of thyroxin secretion hormone. At the same time, if the blood plasma contains more thyroid hormone, the hypothalamus sent the information to TSH to stop the secretion. Thyrodetectomy is to detect the extent of thyroid glands. MRI and CT scan also help to detect thyroid diseases.

What is Parathyroid?

The endocrine system secretes the parathyroid hormone.
The parathyroid has four structures behind the one large thyroid gland. The parathyroid has parathyroid hormone. The oxyphil cells and chief cells are present in the round cells, which makes the parathyroid glands.
It produces a parathyroid hormone to balance the calcium and mineral level in the body. These can maintain the layer at the correct levels.
Calcitonin is called an antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.

The nervous system works only on calcium ions. The parathyroid hormone induces the osteoplast cells to break down the bone tissue. It also stops the settlement of osteoplast in the bone marrow. The parathyroid hormone helps the intestine absorb more calcium ions to give calcium to the nervous system. The parathyroid has no lobes. The bone and kidneys are known as the target of the parathyroid hormone.

The variety in the calcium level of the bloodstream is found by the G-protein coupled cells in the parathyroid hormones. The negative feedback mechanism is played to triggers the PTH art right time and to stop at an unwanted time. Hyperparathyroidism is due to more secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism is due to less secretion of parathyroid hormones. Parathyroid hormone regulates the phosphate level in the human body.

Main Differences Between Thyroid and Parathyroid

  1. The thyroid is an endocrine gland present below the voice box and
    the parathyroid is an endocrine gland present at the back of the thyroid gland.
  2. Triiodothyronine is secreted by the thyroid but, parathyroid hormone
    is secreted by the parathyroid hormone.
  3. The thyroid has two lobes but, the parathyroid has no lobes.
  4. The thyroid is one large gland, and the parathyroid is four small glands.
  5. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are disorders of the thyroid. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism are disorders of the parathyroid.


Since thyroid and parathyroid are preventable you need to concentrate on your daily food. It is vital to take healthy foods and to avoid oily and junk foods. That cause hormonal malfunctions result in various types of diseases. Thyroid and parathyroid plays important role in maintaining the hormonal secretion and calcium levels respectively. Taking good food and care of your body will lead to a good life.


  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0887217195900330
  2. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=sqLWDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=thyroid+vs+parathyroid&ots=eIZxYgPXG7&sig=jE_hhyNYSdLBpmywN8X7-4Ko05M
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