Difference Between Thyroid and Thymus (With Table)

The Thyroid is a gland which involves in metabolism. It is a part of the endocrine system. The Thymus is a part of the lymphatic system where it takes part in the immune response. The Thyroid is responsible for making thyroid hormones. The Thymus, on the other hand, shrinks with an increase in age. The Thyroid sticks to its length.

Thyroid vs Thymus

The difference between the Thyroid and Thymus is Thyroid takes care of the metabolism in the body, whereas the Thymus involves an immune response. The thyroid is a gland, whereas the Thymus is an organ. The thyroid sticks to its length, but the Thymus shrinks as age increases. The Thymus is responsible for cell-mediated immune response.

The Thyroid is a gland that is present in the endocrine system. It is present in the neck and is divided into sections. These sections consist of follicles. Epithelia surround the whole section. While the Hormones get built in the follicles. It is the source of thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine(T3).

The Thymus is an organ responsible for the immune system. It is present in the lymphatic system. The size is the largest when the person is just born. It starts shrinking when the person starts growing and ageing. The older you are smaller the thymus. The thymus is divided into two lobules.

Comparison Table Between Thyroid and Thymus

Parameters of ComparisonThyroidThymus
DefinitionA gland present in the endocrine system.An organ present in the lymphatic system.
StructureTwo sections with follicles and surrounded by epithelia.A capsule with an inner medulla with two lobes.
SizeConsistentShrinks with an increase in age
ProducesThyroxine and TriiodothyronineT cells
ResponsibleMetabolismCell-mediated immune response
DisorderWeight loss, weight gain, heart diseaseMyasthenia gravis, hypogammaglobulinemia

What is Thyroid?

An organ that resides in the endocrine system. It is responsible for the secretion of two types of hormones which are responsible for metabolism in the body. It is present in the neck. It is differentiated into two lobes.

These lobes have follicles that are covered by epithelia. Hormones are built in the follicles. These hormones are solely responsible for controlling metabolism in the body.

These hormones get formed with the help of iodine within the follicles. The anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus control the action of hormone secretion in the body. These both reside in the brain.

This is controlled by a negative feedback loop. Hypothalamus starts working when thyroid hormones decrease in the body. The Thyroid is responsible for the secretion of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, which helps in metabolism in the body.

A person can have anyone disorder either due to few hormones or more hormones. If a person is facing a disorder due to more hormones, then the person can gain a lot of weight, but if the person is facing a disorder due to less hormone, then the person might lose weight very fast.

What is Thymus?

A gland is responsible for the immune system present in the lymphatic system. It has a capsule in the outer region, and inside there is a medulla that forms the whole thymus. It consists of two sections which are called lobules.

The thymus becomes small when the person starts ageing. An old person has a very small size of thymus in the body. Hypothalamus and pituitary gland are responsible for the production of immune system cells.

It is also responsible for the maturation of cells in the Thymus. The pituitary sends a signal to the thymus for the production of T-cells.

Many conditions can arrive due to the disorder of the thymus. Those conditions are myasthenia gravis and hypogammaglobulinemia. These conditions secrete chemicals which are antibodies.

These antibodies attack the muscle cells. It consists of various cells, which are reticulocytes and lymphocytes. The thymus must prevent pathogens from entering the body. It protects from viruses.

It also takes care of the newborn child. It is the place where the transformation of white cells begins and turns into T cells. It protects the developing fetus from viruses.

The thymus in babies is found larger than the old person. The condition of myasthenia gravis occurs in the body and makes the thymus grow longer out of size.

Main Differences Between Thyroid and Thymus

  1. The Thyroid is a gland present in the endocrine system, whereas the Thymus is an organ present in the lymphatic system.
  2. The Thyroid has two sections that have follicles in them, and they are surrounded by epithelia, whereas the Thymus is like a capsule and has an inner medulla section with two lobes.
  3. The thyroid has consistent size, but the Thymus shrinks with an increase in age.
  4. The Thyroid produces thyroxine and Triiodothyronine, whereas Thyme produces T cells of the immune system.
  5. The Thyroid is responsible for metabolism, whereas the Thymus is responsible for cell-mediated immune response.
  6. The Thyroid can produce either a large number of hormones or less amount, whereas the Thymus can lead to myasthenia gravis and hypogammaglobulinemia. 

Conclusion

The Thyroid and Thymus both have different roles in the body. The Thyroid is present in a person’s neck, whereas the Thymus is present in the lymphatic system. They can even lead to some serious conditions and can trigger some life-taking disorders.

Hypothalamus and pituitary gland are responsible for the production of immune system cells. It is also responsible for the maturation of cells in the Thymus. Those conditions are myasthenia gravis and hypogammaglobulinemia.

These conditions secrete chemicals which are antibodies. The anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus control the action of hormone secretion in the body. These both reside in the brain.

The Thymus is a gland that is responsible for the immune system present in the lymphatic system. It has a capsule in the outer region, and inside there is a medulla that forms the whole thymus. It consists of two sections which are called lobules.

The pituitary sends a signal to the thymus for the production of T-cells. The latter is responsible for cell-mediated immune response and consists of various cells, which are reticulocytes and lymphocytes.

The thymus must prevent pathogens from entering the body. It protects from viruses. The size is the largest when the person is a newborn baby.

References

  1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Vanderpump/publication/51619844_The_epidemiology_of_thyroid_disease/links/54f35bea0cf24eb8794c2bd6.pdf
  2. https://www.nature.com/articles/ni.1887

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