Difference Between Uraemia and Azotemia

Uraemia and Azotemia are both diseases or conditions that occur as a result of injuries to kidney function.

The kidneys are the vital organs responsible for removing toxins from the body and maintaining homeostasis and failure to do so can lead to such conditions as uraemia and azotemia.

Uraemia vs Azotemia

The main difference between Uraemia and Azotemia is that although both refer to kidney dysfunction yet uraemia as the name suggests is related to urea while azotemia is associated with an abnormally high nitrogen concentration in the blood considering general medical standards.

Uraemia vs Azotemia

Uraemia means urea in the blood. This is a very realistic and accurate description of the situation.

Uraemia refers to a condition in which the kidneys are unable to maintain homeostasis and are unable to excrete urea and lead to high levels of urea in the blood characterized by a set of symptoms.

Azotemia is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to process or remove metabolic waste products from the body causing elevated nitrogen levels in the blood leading to many of the associated symptoms.

Serum creatinine levels may develop when a person suffers from azotemia.

Comparison Table Between Uraemia and Azotemia

Parameters of ComparisonUraemiaAzotemia
Associated WithUraemia is associated with high levels of urea in the blood.Azotemia is associated with high levels of nitrogenous wastes and creatinine in the blood.
Normal LevelsThe normal level of urea is 6 to 24 mg/dl.Normal nitrogen levels in the body are 0.5 mg / dl for women and 0.6-1.2 mg / dl for men.
SymptomsFatigue and nausea are the most common symptoms. Also, joint pain in the lower body can be caused.Nausea and lethargy are the most common symptoms.
TreatmentDialysis is the only way to treat uraemia.Intravenous fluid administration, medicines, and dialysis can be done for azotemia.
CausePolycystic kidneys, diabetes, and kidney failure are the most common causes of uraemia.Tubular necrosis, diabetes, prostate disease are the most common causes of azotemia.

What is Uraemia?

Uraemia is considered to be a serious kidney disease that is often associated with a set of conditions and symptoms called end-stage renal (kidney) disease.

In simple terms, it refers to the accumulation of urea in the blood due to the accumulation of metabolic wastes in the blood and body.

It can be caused by kidney failure. The kidneys are the organs responsible for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body such as sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, and other nutrients.

If the kidneys are affected then the kidney corpuscles do not effectively filter these electrolytes that accumulate in the blood above safe levels and cause serious problems.

Symptoms of uraemia include fatigue, congestion in the lower extremities, inability to concentrate, headache, vomiting, nausea, decreased appetite, and other associated symptoms.

Often, uraemia occurs when kidney damage is irreversible and that is why the disease is usually chronic.

High blood pressure, polycystic kidney disease, diabetes, cancer are some of the most common causes of uraemia.

However, uraemia cannot be completely corrected as the damage done to the kidneys is too great to be reversed so the only treatment left is dialysis.

What is Azotemia?

Azotemia is another kidney condition that occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to effectively filter natural and nitrogenous wastes from the body.

Azotemia is a condition characterized by an abnormally high level of nitrogen in the blood associated with the accumulation of nitrogenous wastes.

Medically, azotemia can be of three types: pre-renal, renal, and post-renal azotemia. Each of these has different causes. Prerenal azotemia is caused by decreased blood flow to the kidneys.

Renal azotemia is caused by infection, injury, trauma, or disease, and post-renal azotemia is caused by any obstruction that occurs during discharge.

The symptoms of different types of azotemia are different. However, they all lead to severe kidney failure.

Common symptoms are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, kidney failure, fatigue, and other related conditions such as miscarriage, tubular necrosis, and so on.

Azotemia, however, can be controlled by dietary and lifestyle changes. However, the best treatment option is dialysis based on initial stages with medication.

In the event of any urinary incontinence and symptoms, one should immediately consult a urologist to diagnose the disease.

Main Differences Between Uraemia and Azotemia

  1. The level of urea in the blood that can be described as uraemia is more than 300 mg / dl while the nitrogen content is 8-20 mg / dl for azotemia.
  2. Uraemia is caused by high levels of urea in the blood while azotemia is associated with high levels of nitrogenous waste in the blood. Circumstances are often found together in patients.
  3. Uraemia is considered to be more serious and endemic than azotemia.
  4. Uraemia usually occurs when irreversible damage is done to the kidneys and that is why only blood dialysis remains as a treatment while in the treatment of azotemia IV, ion balance restoration drugs can also be performed.
  5. Uranium is usually only one type while azotemia can be clinically classified into three types with different symptoms.

Conclusion

Kidneys therefore play a vital role in maintaining ionic balance in the body and maintaining safe levels of metabolic waste in the blood.

Any type of injury, damage to the nephrons or renal corpuscles leads to kidney failure which can disrupt the body’s homeostasis and cause conditions such as uraemia and azotemia.

In the event of any symptoms, urine and blood tests should be performed for kidney function.

Urologists in such conditions perform blood and urine tests to determine the level of urea or nitrogen or creatinine and other associated ions like potassium and calcium in the blood and urine and often compare it with levels of a normal person to diagnose the disease considering the symptoms.

References

  1. http://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/10175/
  2. https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/abs/10.7326/0003-4819-66-6-1097
  3. https://europepmc.org/books/nbk538145
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