Difference Between Voluntary Muscle and Involuntary Muscle (with Table)

Every human being is constructed with muscles. Muscles are soft tissues they consist of actin and myosin. They both constructively help create and change the shape and length of muscle cells. More than 700 muscles are present in organ systems such as the digestive system, internal organs, etc. muscles are further classifies based on the structure and movement muscles- voluntary muscle and involuntary muscle.

Voluntary is muscles present in the body that can have flexible movement on the free will of the person. Whereas involuntary muscles are present in the body cannot be controlled. The contraction that takes place in the voluntary muscle is fast and powerful whereas the contractions that take place in the involuntary muscles are relatively slow.

The difference between voluntary muscle and involuntary muscle is that the voluntary muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. The voluntary muscles are multinucleated, long, and cylindrical however the involuntary muscles are uninucleated, thin, small, and spindle in shape.

Comparison Table Between Voluntary Muscle and Involuntary Muscle

Parameter of ComparisonVoluntary MuscleInvoluntary Muscle
ControlIt is controlled by the central nervous systemIt is controlled by the autonomic nervous system
ContractionThe contractions are rapid and powerfulThe contractions are slow and rhythmic always
EnergyThe requirement of energy is highThe requirement of energy is less
CellThe cells are multinucleatedThe cells are uninucleated
ShapeThey are long and cylindricalThey are small, thin and spindle
NucleusNucleus is present in the outer walls of the cellIt is present in the center of the cell
WorkIt works under commandIt does not work under control
Rest PeriodIt requires rest at regular intervalsIt works continuously
SarcolemmaSarcolemma present is thickSarcolemma present is thin
Present inIt is present in the tongue, diaphragm and found attached to bonesIt is present in alimentary tracts, respiratory tracts, blood vessels, etc.
InvolvementIt is required in the movement of body partsIt is required in internal organ movement

What is Voluntary Muscle?

Voluntary muscles are muscles on the body that can perform flexible movement on the free will of the person and they are always attached to the skeleton system. Voluntary muscles are long and multinucleated muscle cell which are crossed with a regular pattern of red and white lines. Voluntary muscles contain cylindrical fiber that is mostly attached to the bones and the skin.

The sarcolemma is thick and it connects the muscle fiber to the connective tissue. Voluntary muscle plays a vital role in body movement. Contracting and relaxing the muscles. Voluntary muscle is responsible for specific body movements. With the help of proper exercise, it will make an easier movement. The power and flexibility of voluntary muscles increases. Voluntary muscles are controlled by a person’s desires. An average male human body consists of 42% of voluntary muscles whereas a female body on average consists of 36% of voluntary muscles.

Voluntary Muscle

What is Involuntary Muscle?

Involuntary muscles are muscles in the body that cannot be controlled, they are linked with the organs present in the body that makes slow and rhythmic continuous contraction and relaxation movement. Involuntary muscles are striated and branched in the case of cardiac muscle. The involuntary muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system of the body, they are not affected by the voluntary nerve activities. The involuntary muscles are present in organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, blood vessels, etc.

The involuntary muscles include the smooth muscles and the cardiac muscles in the body. Unlike the voluntary muscles, the involuntary muscles are also known as visceral muscles as they are located in the walls of the internal organs such as urinary bladders, uterus, alimentary canal, etc. they are thin, long, and spindle-shaped. In the involuntary muscles, there is a nucleus present in the center of each cell and the nucleus is surrounded by sarcoplasm. The sarcolemma present in involuntary muscle is considered less in concentration. The involuntary muscle also has less energy requirement as they have less number of mitochondria.

Involuntary Muscle
Cardiac and Smooth muscle is involuntary muscle because we do NOT have the ability to control it. Examples: Heart Beat. Digesting Food.

Main Difference Between Voluntary Muscle and Involuntary Muscle

  1. The voluntary muscles are controlled by the central nervous system and can perform flexible movement but the involuntary muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and cannot work flexibly of its fee will.
  2. The contractions that take place within the voluntary muscles are rapid and powerful hence the energy requirement is high within the cell whereas the contractions that take place within the involuntary muscle are in slow and rhythmic pace hence the energy required in less.
  3. In the voluntary muscles, the cells are multinucleated, long, and cylindrical whereas in involuntary muscles the cells are uninucleated, small, thin, and spindle-shaped.
  4. In involuntary muscles, the nucleus is present in the outer walls of the cell whereas for voluntary muscles the nucleus is present in the between of the cell.
  5. The voluntary muscle requires rest at regular intervals as they fatigued after some time. The involuntary muscles can work continuously without any rest.
  6. The sarcolemma present in the voluntary muscles is thick whereas the sarcolemma present in the involuntary muscle is thin.

Conclusion

A human body is composed of 40% muscles. These muscles are made up of actin and myosin they help in the shape and length of a muscle. A body is made up of several different types of muscles two of the major are voluntary and involuntary muscles. They can be both differentiated under several aspects such as control, contraction, energy, shape, cell, nucleus, work, rest period, sarcolemma, and involvement.

Voluntary muscles are muscles in the body that performs flexible movement on the free will of the person. They are controlled by the central nervous system. They are multinucleated, long, and cylindrical shaped cell. They require a high amount of energy and cannot perform continuously they require a regular interval of rest.  Involuntary muscles are muscles in the body that cannot be controlled by a person they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. They are uninucleated, small, thin, and spindle-shaped. It requires less energy and can work continuously.

References

  1. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM196412032712302
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090379812002322