Difference Between Welding and Brazing (With Table)

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These are mainly three types of joints between two metals. To join two metals different kinds of techniques are used and these two are names of such two techniques. The big difference is the use of temperature and the use of another filler metal for joining. The Welding technique uses filler metal to join both the metals. On the other hand. The welding technique joins both metals by fusion. 

Welding vs Brazing

The difference between Welding and Brazing is that these are the two different kinds of techniques for joining metals. The joints are made when base metals are needed to be joined. Both Welding and Brazing joints work very differently. The temperature and techniques are though meant to do some work but are very different in the process.

The welding joint is when two metals are fused. When needed to join base metals, these metals are heated at the place of the joint. The temperature should be above the meting point of the base metals. Thus, this melts the metals and fuses both the pieces together. These joints are made without any use of third-party metal or filler metals.

The Brazing joints are quite different from the process of fusion. In this technique of joining, a third metal or filler metals are used to join the base metal. The temperature used is lower than the melting point of base metals. To join these base metals without fusion a metallurgical bond is created.

Comparison Table Between Welding and Brazing 

Parameters of ComparisonWeldingBrazing
Temperature UsedHigher than the melting point of the base metals. (Can go up to max. 3800°C)Lower than the melting point of the base metal. (Can go up to max. 600°C)
Distortion and StressHigh distortion and Stress is seen in the metalsLow distortion and Stress is seen in the metals
Tensile StrengthThe Tensile Strength is seen to be >200MPaThe Tensile Strength is seen to be between 100-150MPa
Use of Filler MetalsNOYES
Types of metals it can joinOnly metals with similar composition and melting temperature can be joined.Any kind of metal can be joined.

What is Welding?

These are the kind of joints that are usually made between thick metals and have mainly one single point of interaction. In this joint, the pinpoint of the metal where the joint is to be done is heated. The temperature should be more than the melting temperature. As the metals become heated both are fused.

The meaning of fusion is the process of joining metals by creating a weld pool. The same kind or type of metals are heated above their melting temperature which forms molten materials called weld pool. Brought together these molten metals are joined together to form a very strong bond.

These kinds of joints have a great advantage when done in smaller areas rather than large areas. The Welding joints also can be divided into many types. Some of them are Plastic welding, Electro-slag welding, Gas metal arc welding, Gas tungsten arc welding, Flux-cored arc welding, Glass welding, Oxy-fuel welding, Shielded metal arc welding, and Submerged arc welding.

What is Brazing?

These kinds of joints work in any kind of metal. The metals don’t precisely have to be the same kind but can also be two different kinds. In this kind of joint, an extra metal mainly called filler metals is added in between the joints of the base metals. 

The temperature of the base metals is heated and is brought a little less than the melting point. As the base metal gets heated enough the filler metals are touched with the heated base metals. This melts the filler metals. 

The liquid filler metals travel all through all the gaps and fill them. This step is also called wetting. The liquid as gets cooler gets hardened. This joins the base metals together and makes it a metallurgic bond. The principle of Capillary action works in the process of creating the joints.

There are mainly 7 types of brazing heating methods: Torch or manual brazing, Furnace Brazing, Silver brazing, Braze welding, Cast-iron welding, Vacuum brazing and Dip brazing. Some of the metals that can be used as filler metals are silver, copper, aluminum, zinc, etc.

Main Differences Between Welding and Brazing

  1. Welding joints are used in constructions, repair shops, bridges, aircraft, railways, etc. On the other hand, Brazing joints are used in electronic or electrical things, jewelry, etc.
  2. Welding doesn’t give a fine look and is not used in products that require a better look while Brazing gives a better finishing look.
  3. In Welding joints, as the base metals are melted it might lose some properties sometimes while Brazing removes this chance as the base metals are not melted in this type of joint.
  4. Welding requires much more heat than Brazing which also makes difference in the cost.
  5. As Welding makes a fusion in the base metals it is stronger than the Brazing joint. 
  6. The base metals should be of the same composition in the case of Welding while for Brazing it doesn’t matter.
  7. The process of Welding takes much more efficiency while Brazing joints are easy and are much more widely used. 
  8. The process of Welding is rarely used for mass production while Brazing joints are much more preferred for mass production because of their easy, efficient, and finishing look.
  9. For Welding, different temperature are used for different metals while for Brazing temperatures are quite the same throughout the process.
  10. The process of Welding either fastens the properties of rusting than the base metals. On the other hand, Brazing makes minimal changes in the rusting properties of the metals.

Conclusion

The two different types of joint have different values. The welding joint has a much better grip for strength. On the other hand, the Brazing join has a better grip in easy and better finishing look with a little less efficiency in the field of strength. The joints like in big buildings, bridges, or other construction where the strength has highly required this kind of fusion join i.e. Welding joint is used. The joints where the look and quick finishing is required and can manage with a little strength uses the Brazing joints. The joints where the different compositions of metals are joined, the Welding joint doesn’t work and the Brazing can only be used. 

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389214002259
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924013617304740
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0030399219313076
  4. https://academic.oup.com/ejo/article-abstract/30/4/396/392882
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