Dermatophytes vs Non-dermatophytes: Difference and Comparison

What are Dermatophytes?

Dermatophytes are a group of fungi that can infect the skin, hair, and nails of humans and animals. These fungi are responsible for a group of skin infections known as dermatophytosis or tinea infections. Dermatophyte infections are common and can affect people of all ages.

Dermatophytes thrive in warm and moist environments, making them common in places like locker rooms, swimming pools, and communal showers. They are also highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or contaminated objects, such as towels or shoes.

What are Non-Dermatophytes?

Non-dermatophytes, also known as non-dermatophytic molds or non-dermatophytic fungi, are a group of fungi that can cause infections of the skin, hair, and nails similar to dermatophytes. However, they are distinct from dermatophytes in terms of their biology and classification. While dermatophytes belong to a specific group of fungi called dermatophytes (genera such as Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton), non-dermatophytes encompass a wide range of fungal species from various fungal families.

Non-dermatophytic fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails are referred to as “dermatomycoses.” These infections can manifest in a manner similar to dermatophyte infections, causing symptoms such as itching, redness, scaling, and discomfort.

Difference Between Dermatophytes and Non-dermatophytes

  1. Dermatophytes belong to a specific group of fungi known as dermatophytes or dermatophytic fungi. They include genera like Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton. Non-dermatophytes encompass a diverse range of fungal species from various fungal families and are not classified as dermatophytes.
  2. Dermatophytes primarily infect the outermost layers of the skin, hair, and nails. They are adapted to living on the surface of these tissues. Non-dermatophytes can infect a broader range of tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. They may cause systemic fungal infections in addition to dermatomycoses.
  3. Dermatophytes are limited to a few fungal genera within the families Arthrodermataceae and Onygenaceae. Non-dermatophytes include various fungal families, such as Candida spp. (Candida family), Malassezia spp. (Malasseziaceae family), and Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillaceae family), among others.
  4. Dermatophyte infections present as well-defined, circular, and scaly rashes with raised borders, commonly known as “ringworm.” Non-dermatophyte infections may exhibit a broader spectrum of clinical presentations, including yeast infections (e.g., candidiasis), discoloration (e.g., pityriasis versicolor), and different forms of onychomycosis (nail infections).
  5. Treatment for dermatophyte infections involves antifungal medications specific to dermatophytes, such as terbinafine or azoles. Non-dermatophyte infections require treatment with antifungal agents tailored to the specific fungal species causing the infection.

Comparison Between Dermatophytes and Non-dermatophytes

Parameters of ComparisonDermatophytesNon-dermatophytes
Mode of NutritionKeratinophilic (feed on keratin)Heterotrophic (various food sources)
PathogenicityOften limited to the skin, hair, and nailsCan cause a broader range of infections, including systemic mycoses
Geographic PrevalenceWidespread globally, common in human dermatophytosisVariable distribution; may include commensals and opportunistic pathogens
Diagnostic MethodsCommonly diagnosed using microscopy, culture, and molecular techniquesDiagnosis may require specific fungal testing, using culture and DNA sequencing
Risk FactorsEnvironmental factors (e.g., humidity) and close contactImmunodeficiency, underlying medical conditions, and use of immunosuppressive drugs may increase susceptibility
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References
  1. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1440-0960.1992.tb00110.x
  2. https://www.mdpi.com/2309-608X/8/10/1019

Last Updated : 24 January, 2024

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