Difference Between Brute Force and Heuristic Search

Artificial intelligence is one of the most expanding sectors in today’s time. It is the study of building objects that act objectively. These AI to perform and achieve their actions perform specific kinds of algorithms. Two such algorithms are brute force and heuristic search.

The main difference between Brute Force and Heuristic Search is that brute force is a form of uninformed search. On the other hand, the heuristic search is an informed search. Brute force is relatively time-consuming whereas heuristic search is very quick.

Brute Force vs Heuristic Search

Brute force is an uninformed search algorithm used in AI technology. In simpler words, it is searching without the proper information. It also does not have much knowledge about the problem but comes out with a solution that one might want. Brute force as it is goes through several possibilities the process is more time consuming and lengthy

Heuristic search is an informed search algorithm used in AI technology. In simpler words, it is searching with proper data and information and coming out with possible outcomes. Heuristic search generates a path around the solution. Heuristic force as it is majorly goal-oriented does not take much time to perform tasks.

Parameter of ComparisonBrute ForceHeuristic Search
Other namesBlind or uniform searchInformed search
ProcessSearching without informationSearching with information
Time-consumingConsumes more time and lengthy processConsumes less time and less lengthy process
MemoryLarge memory requiredLarge memory is not required
SolutionDoes not prove a direct path to the solution  Provides a path toward the solution
FunctionIt does not require extra function for searchingUsed for searching

What is Brute Force?       

 Brute force is also known as blind search or uniform search. Uniform search can locate a non-objective state from an objective state. The blind search typically has no control over the note that is chosen. Blind search or brute force is one of the two major search strategies when one has no direct path towards the search.                  

Blind searches do not produce simple information that one can use, but build search produces answers that one might be looking for but has no clue about. As these searches do not have any additional information provided regarding the search, therefore the name-blind search.

There are several types of brute force algorithms namely- depth-limited search, bidirectional search, uniform cost search,breadth-first search, depth-first search, and iterative deepening depth-first search.

The breadth-first search creates the search by the formation of the tree levels. It links several topics visited. It digs out the shallowest goal of the user that is closest to the root. Depth-first search consecutively wanders along the path while going down in the tree until it arises with a solution to the problem or until it reaches the dead end. Upon reaching the dead-end it backtracks its path and digs out other paths.

Heuristic search is also known as informed search. It is goal-oriented. The main aim of the heuristic search is to be quick and easy, ranging for a variety of problems, therefore it finds out an approximate answer without requiring or spending much time and resources.

The heuristic search may not give the most accurate or best solution always but it finds out a proper solution in a rational time frame. This type of search method is very useful for solving tough problems. Therefore it is the best way for problems that are difficult to be solved and problems that take endless time to solve.

The guideline of a heuristic search can be applied to several issues in math, science. The heuristic search utilizes several techniques to look through the arrangement space while evaluating wherein the space the arrangement is probably going to be and zeroing in the inquiry on that area.

Heuristic search can be further classified under greedy search, A* tree search, and A* graph search. In a greedy search, the node closest to the goal is expanded. A* tree search consolidates the qualities of uniform-cost search and greedy search. A*graph search removes the limitations that are found in the A*graph search by expanding similar nodes more than once.

  1. Brute force is also known as blind search or uniform search, whereas heuristic search is known as informed search.
  2. In brute force searching takes place without proper information, however for heuristic search searching takes place with proper information.
  3. Brute force is a time-consuming procedure. It is also a lengthy procedure and takes time to find out the solution. Heuristic search however a quick process is and does not take much time to find out solutions.
  4. Brute force requires large memory storage; heuristic search however does not require much memory storage.
  5. Brute search does not have a direct path towards the solution, while heuristic search paves a direct path toward the solution.
  6. Brute force does not use any special function for searching in particular. Heuristic force however is used for the process of searching.

Conclusion

 One of the most emerging sectors in today’s world is the artificial intelligence technology of the IT sector. Almost every day discoveries are made along with new changes. AI technology to function and take command requires algorithms. Two algorithms that support this technology are brute force and heuristic search.

Brute force is considered a blind form of search as it does not include any heuristic technique. Brute force by its nature is generally very inefficient. Heuristic search is problem-based. They usually find an approximate solution to a problem.

References

  1. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/b138699.pdf
  2. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1009672832658
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