Difference Between Capacitor and Battery (With Table)

Capacitor vs Battery

Capacitors and Battery are the two devices that are used extensively in the field of electricity generation and storage. These two terms are often used interchangeably but they imply completely different meanings.

The capacitor is the device that stores electrostatic energy in the electric field whereas Battery is the device that converts the chemical energy into the electrical energy that can be used for various purposes. Battery involves the electrostatic reactions that work on the principle of transfer of electrons.

The difference between Capacitor and Battery is that Capacitor is the device where the potential energy is stored in the electric field whereas in a Battery the potential energy is stored in the form of chemical energy that can be used later.

Another point of difference between the two devices is that capacitor stores and releases energy non-linearly whereas Battery allows a linear flow of energy when required.

 Capacitors are usually more expensive than batteries. Batteries can be of different types depending on the requirement. 


 

Comparison Table Between Capacitor and Battery (in Tabular Form)

Parameters of ComparisonCapacitorBattery
DefinitionThe capacitor is the device that stores potential energy in the electric field.The battery is the device that converts chemical energy to the electric energy to generate power.
DurabilityThe capacitor is considered the passive component of the circuit because it charges and discharges immediately.The battery is considered the active component of the circuit because it provides a continuous supply of energy.
Energy densityThey have lower energy density than batteries.Batteries have a high energy density than capacitors.
VoltageThe voltage of the capacitors decreases rapidly in the absence of charge.The battery provides a constant voltage while discharging.
Made up ofCapacitors are generally made up of thin sheet metals that are separated by the insulators.The battery is made up of metals and chemicals that convert into electric energy.

 

What is Capacitor?

A capacitor is a device that is useful to store energy in a circuit. It stores the potential energy or the electrostatic energy in the electric field. A capacitor consists of the two parallel plates separated by the dielectric medium. It usually draws energy from the circuit, stores and then releases. It is useful for the applications run by the AC (alternating current) because it blocks the DC (direct current).

Some of the key features of a capacitor are as follows:

  1. It stores energy in the form of the electric field.
  2. The voltage of a capacitor gets decreased rapidly when disconnected.
  3. Charging and discharging of the capacitor occurs at a high rate.
  4. Capacitors are generally of three types- ceramic, tantalum, and electrolytic.
  5. They are the passive component of the circuit.

A capacitor is made up of several parallel plates separated by the dielectric medium where this dielectric medium decides the type of the capacitor.

RECOMMENDED  Difference Between Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy (With Table)
Capacitor
 

What is Battery?

A battery is a device that is used to generate a continuous supply of power. It converts the chemical energy into electrical energy with the help of an electrochemical reaction that is based on the transfer of the electron. A battery is made up of metals and certain chemicals. It stores potential energy in the form of chemical and releases it in the form of chemical energy.

A battery consists of two electrodes (known as cathode and anode) and a chemical-filled inside it known as an electrolyte. 

Some of the key aspects of a battery are listed below:

  1. It stores potential energy in the form of chemical energy.
  2. It provides a continuous supply of DC (direct current).
  3. A battery provides constant voltage while discharging.
  4. It is an active component of the circuit because it provides energy to the circuit.
  5. The charging and discharging of the battery happens through a chemical reaction that produces voltage.

Batteries can be of various types such as zinc-carbon, lithium-lithium ion, nickel cadmium, etc.

Battery

Main Differences Between Capacitor and Battery

  • A capacitor is a device that stores electrostatic energy in the electric field whereas Battery stores the potential energy in the form of chemical energy.
  • In a capacitor, the charging and discharging occurs rapidly whereas in a Battery charging and discharging occurs at a slow rate.
  • The voltage of the capacitor decreases rapidly when disconnected whereas voltage of a Battery doesn’t decrease rapidly.
  • The battery is the active component of the circuit because it provides the energy to the circuit whereas the Capacitor is the passive component of the circuit.
  • A capacitor consists of parallel plates separated by the dielectric medium whereas Battery consists of two electrodes and a chemical called electrolyte.

 

Conclusion

Capacitor and battery are the electrical components used in a circuit to store and release energy. These are often confused t be the same but function differently. Capacitors are the devices that store and release energy in the electric field whereas Battery concerts the chemical energy to the electrical energy to produce power.

The capacitor is the device that stores potential energy in the electric field. It consists of two or more parallel plates separated by the dielectric medium. It is the passive component in a circuit because it does not provide a constant supply of energy to the circuit. Voltage in a capacitor decreases rapidly while discharging.

The battery is the active component of the device because it provides energy to the circuit. The charging and discharging of the battery occurs at a slow rate. The voltage of the battery generally remains constant while discharging. The battery consists of two electrodes and electrolytes.


 

Word Cloud for Difference Between Capacitor and Battery

The following is a collection of the most used terms in this article on Capacitor and Battery. This should help in recalling related terms as used in this article at a later stage for you.

difference between capacitor and battery