Deduction and Induction are two logical terms. Deduction and Induction are two types of logical reasoning or inference. Logical reasoning refers to the methods by which a conclusion is drawn by the relationship between the premise or premises (premises means the previous statements, which helps for further reasoning or inquiry). On the basis of evidence and reasoning, both methods are conducted. Both methods conclude their conclusions by the logical argument on the basis of facts, definitions, observations, analysis, etc.

## Deduction vs Induction

**The main difference between Deduction and Induction is that Deduction is decided on the basis of generalizing the existing theory. Whereas, Induction, aims at the newly emerging theory for further observations. The deduction depends upon the existing sources or theories from where the conclusion is drawn and on the other hand, the induction depends upon the newly emerging sources and theories to draw the conclusion based on observations of the new sources. **

Deduction refers to the process of generalizing the existing theory for further process of observation to conclude its conclusion. In deduction, the existing idea is observed to get the conclusion. The conclusion in deduction can not be more general than the premises.

On the other hand, Induction refers to the process of concluding a conclusion on the basis of newly emerging facts, theories, observations, etc. In induction, first, the observations are received and on the basis of those observations further analysis is conducted, and hence, we receive the theory. The conclusion in induction is always more general than the premises.

## Comparison Table Between Deduction and Induction

Parameters of Comparison | Deduction | Induction |

Definition | Deduction refers to the method of generalizing the existing theory for further observations to conduct the conclusion. | Induction refers to the method of conducting its conclusion with the help of newly emerging theories. |

Premises | The conclusion follows the premise for the results | The conclusion might not follow the premises for the results |

Knowledge | It does not give any new knowledge, as it is based on the existing theory | It gives new knowledge, as it is based on the newly emerging theory |

Process | The process of conducting the conclusion in Deduction is quick | The process of conducting the conclusion in Induction is slow |

Dependency | It depends upon the existing sources and theories | It depends upon the new sources or theories |

Association | The deduction is associated with formal logic | Induction is associated with informal logic |

Method | The deduction is a method of verification | Induction is a method of discovery |

## What is Deduction?

The deduction is a logical argument that is made to conduct the conclusion with the help of the premises. The deduction is also known as deductive inference or reasoning. In deductive inference, the conclusion can not be more general than the premises.

Deductive reasoning moves from general to specific. If the premises of the deduction are true then the conclusion is said to be true. The deduction is also known as deductive inference or reasoning. Generally, deductive inference aims only upon formal truth. In deductive inference, the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises. So, in a valid deductive inference, if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true.

Example of Deductive reasoning –

1. All dogs bark.

2. Bob is a dog.

3. Therefore, Bob barks.

## What is Induction?

Induction refers to the logical argument that is done on basis of newly emerging theories. The induction is also commonly known as inductive inference. The conclusion in inductive inference is always more general than the premises.

In Inductive inference, we pass from particular positions to a general position. The premises are true as a matter of fact. The induction aims at both formal and material truth. The conclusion does not follow necessarily the premises. So, the premises of induction may be true but the conclusion may be false.

Example of Inductive Inference- The coin I pulled from the purse is a two rupee coin.

## Main Differences Between Deduction and Induction

- Deduction refers to the method of generelizing the existing theory for further observations to conduct the conclusion. Whereas, Induction refers to the method of conducting its conclusion with the help of newly emerging theories.
- The concluison of a deduction, necessarily follows the premises for the results. Whereas, the conclusion of a induction might not follow the premises for the results.
- Deduction does not give any new knowledge, as it is based on the existing theory. Whereas, induction gives new knowledge, as it is based upon the newly emerging theories.
- The process of conducting the conclusion in deduction is quick. Whereas, the process of conducting the conclusion in induction is alow.
- The deduction depends upon the existing sources and theories for the conclusion. Whereas, the induction depends upon the new sources and theories for the conclusion.
- The deduction is associted with formal logic, Whereas, the induction is associated with informal logic.
- Deduction is the method of verification. Whereas, induction is the method of discovery.

## Conclusion

Deduction and Induction are two types of reasoning. They are also known as Deductive inference or reasoning and Inductive inference or reasoning. Deductive inference refers to the system by which we get the logical conclusion with the help of some existing thesis. And on the other, Inductive inference refers to the logical argument which is done on the basis of a newly emerging thesis. The deductive inference is associated with formal logic and it also aims at formal truth. Inductive inference is associated with informal logic and also aims at both formal and material truth.

Deduction or Deductive inference is also known as the method of verification because as we know deductive inference works on the basis of the old or existing pieces of evidence and hence, they are further verified during observation and hence we find the conclusion. Whereas, Induction or Inductive inference is known as the method of discovery, where we discover new sets of pieces of evidence and further analyze them to get the conclusion.

## References

- https://danielmiessler.com/blog/the-difference-between-deductive-and-inductive-reasoning/#:~:text=Both%20deduction%20and%20induction%20are,by%20observations%20and%20a%20conclusion.
- https://www.msubillings.edu/asc/resources/writing/pdf/Induction%20vs%20Deduction.pdf

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