Difference Between Haploid and Diploid

In chromosomes they have cells in them which are important for reproduction in both humans and animals. Some pairs of them are double, and some are single.

Apart from that, they also help in the growth and development of organisms. It is one of the important topics that should be learned in biology.

So that students can understand genetics and other topics related to that.

Haploid vs Diploid

The main difference between Haploid and Diploid is that in Haploid, the chromosomes are single, and they are always odd in number.

In diploid, the chromosomes are available in double pairs, and they are always even in number.

Haploids are formed by the process called meiosis, and they involve unfertilized eggs. Diploids are formed by the process called mitosis, and they involve fertilized eggs. 

Haploid and Diploid

Haploid is a dominant stage in the bryophyte’s life cycle. In a multicellular haploid, gametophyte will develop and produce haploid gametes.

The main function of haploids is reproduction. They reduce the genome to one copy and then create different copies.

These different copies will be rearranged while creating a zygote. An organism has 23 haploids. 

Diploid cells are important for reproduction. In diploid, one chromosome will be inherited from the paternal side, and the other chromosome will be inherited from the maternal side.

They are called the exact replica of the parent cell. This is because of the mitosis cell division.

For human diploid cell culture, after 50 duplications, the growth rate will start to decline.  

Comparison Table Between Haploid and Diploid

Parameters of ComparisonHaploidDiploid
ChromosomeThey have a single set of chromosomes.They have a double set of chromosomes.
FormationMeiosisMitosis
ExampleMale or female germ cellsBlood, skin, and muscle cells
Egg typeUnfertilized eggsFertilized eggs
OrganismsThey are found in male ants.They are mostly found in plants.

What is Haploid?

It is a cell that has a single set of chromosomes. The chromosomes in them are referred to as sperm or egg cells.

These are also called gametes. Gametes are called organisms’ reproductive cells.

Organisms that are reproduced asexually are considered to be haploid. Egg and sperm cells in the human body are considered to be haploid.

Haploid cells are meiosis. The meiosis together will produce 4 haploid cells.

Haploid cells are further divided into 2 cells.

They are gametes or germ cells. Haploid cells are created for dividing the parent cell into two.

These two cells will produce 2 diploid cells. Bacteria are considered to be haploid because they have a rapid generation time.

They can be easily grown in a large population and traditional genetic analysis. Also, they are very straightforward.

In plants, pollen is called haploid, and they are called the male gametes. Virus and prokaryotic organisms come under haploid.

Their genome will have a single RNA or DNA molecule. For studying gene functions, haploid cells are considered to be very useful.

They have a disruption of a single allele which will lead to loss of function phenotypes. This is one of the biggest advantages of having haploid cells.

This will be unable to mask the effect of mutations. Haploids are also available in seeds, but the embryo in them will be colorless. They occur in the endosperm. 

What is Diploid?

They are called paired chromosomes. Each chromosome will come from one parent.

The total number of diploid chromosomes is 46. This is double the number of haploid cells because of the chromosome pairs.

Cells in the blood, skin, and muscles are called diploids. If an organism has a diploid number of 10, then it has 10 chromosomes, which means it has 5 homologous pairs.

A diploid number can be easily found by multiplying the haploid number of 2.

The diploid number of rabbits is 44. Diploids come under the type of mitosis.

Their daughter cells are genetically identical. Diploid cells are always even in number because the cells will have the same number of chromosomes.

A rodent named Oleracea has an odd diploid number of chromosomes in it, which is 29. Diploid cells are also found in the reproductive system like haploid cells.

The best example of diploid cells is genomes.

Plant types of gymnosperms and angiosperms are diploid. There is a diploid cell vaccine available that is used for rabies virus and also for people who are bitten by animals.

This vaccine will expose you to a small dose of the virus, which will help your body to develop immunity. Plants also have a diploid phase which is called the sporophyte.

Sperm and ovaries do not come under diploid. They usually come under haploid. 

Main Differences Between Haploid and Diploid

  1. Haploid is formed by the process of meiosis. On the other hand, diploid is formed by the process of mitosis.
  2. The chromosome in the haploid has a single set. On the other hand, the chromosome in the diploid has a double set.
  3. Examples of haploids are male and female germ cells. On the other hand, examples of diploids are blood and muscle cells.
  4. The egg type in haploids is unfertilized. On the other hand, the egg type in the diploid is fertilized.
  5. Haploids are found in male ants. On the other hand, diploid is found mostly in plants. 
  6. Haploid is important for the reproduction system. On the other hand, diploid is important for the growth and development of organisms. 

Conclusion

Both haploid and diploid are found inside the chromosomes. They have daughter cells which will be further divided into some other cells.

Learning about chromosomes is important to understand genetic and other topics. As the further topics in biology will involve these ideologies.

These topics are not taught further in school curriculums.

Students will learn more about them when they study these in medicine. They can furthermore research these topics when they study genetics.

Chromosomes have X and Y pairs. These pairs will only determine whether the child is a boy or a girl.

Haploid and diploid come under the type called Ploidy which is present inside the nucleus.

References

  1. https://www.pnas.org/content/115/22/E5046.short
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.01080.x
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