Chromosomes have cells essential for reproduction in humans and animals. Some pairs of them are double, and some are single.
Apart from that, they also help in the growth and development of organisms. It is one of the essential topics that should be learned in biology.
So that students can understand genetics and other topics related to that.
- Haploid cells contain a single set of chromosomes, while diploid cells have two complete sets.
- Haploid cells are produced through meiosis, while diploid cells arise from mitosis.
- Sexual reproduction involves fusing haploid cells (gametes) to create a diploid offspring.
Haploid vs Diploid
Haploid refers to a single set of chromosomes in an organism’s cells. Sexually reproducing organisms are diploid (having two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent). Diploid is a term that refers to the presence of two complete sets of chromosomes in an organism’s cells, with each parent contributing a chromosome to each pair.
Haploid is a dominant stage in the bryophyte’s life cycle. In a multicellular haploid, gametophytes will develop and produce haploid gametes.
The primary function of haploids is reproduction. They reduce the genome to one copy and then create different documents.
These different copies will be rearranged while creating a zygote. An organism has 23 haploids.
Diploid cells are essential for reproduction. In diploid, one chromosome will be inherited from the paternal side, and the other from the maternal side.
They are called the replica of the parent cell. This is because of the mitosis cell division.
For human diploid cell culture, after 50 duplications, the growth rate will start to decline.
|Parameters of Comparison||Haploid||Diploid|
|Chromosome||They have a single set of chromosomes.||They have a double set of chromosomes.|
|Example||Male or female germ cells||Blood, skin, and muscle cells|
|Egg type||Unfertilized eggs||Fertilized eggs|
|Organisms||They are found in male ants.||They are mostly found in plants.|
What is Haploid?
It is a cell that has a single set of chromosomes. The chromosomes in them are referred to as sperm or egg cells.
These are also called gametes. Gametes are called organisms’ reproductive cells.
Organisms that are reproduced asexually are considered to be haploid. Egg and sperm cells in the human body are deemed to be haploid.
Haploid cells are meiosis. The meiosis together will produce four haploid cells.
Haploid cells are further divided into two compartments.
They are gametes or germ cells. Haploid cells are created to divide the parent cell into two.
These two cells will produce two diploid cells. Bacteria are considered to be haploid because they have a rapid generation time.
They can be quickly grown in a large population and through traditional genetic analysis. Also, they are very straightforward.
In plants, pollen is called haploid, and they are called the male gametes. Virus and prokaryotic organisms come under haploid.
Their genome will have a single RNA or DNA molecule. For studying gene functions, haploid cells are considered to be very useful.
They have a disruption of a single allele, leading to a loss of function phenotypes. This is one of the most significant advantages of having haploid cells.
This will be unable to mask the effect of mutations. Haploids are also available in seeds, but the embryo in them will be colourless. They occur in the endosperm.
What is Diploid?
They are called paired chromosomes. Each chromosome will come from one parent.
The total number of diploid chromosomes is 46. This is double the number of haploid cells because of the chromosome pairs.
Cells in the blood, skin, and muscles are called diploids. If an organism has a diploid number of 10, it has ten chromosomes, meaning it has five homologous pairs.
A diploid number can be easily found by multiplying the haploid number by 2.
The diploid number of rabbits is 44. Diploids come under the type of mitosis.
Their daughter cells are genetically identical. Diploid cells are always even in number because the cells will have the same number of chromosomes.
A rodent named Oleracea has an odd diploid number of chromosomes, 29. Diploid cells are also found in the reproductive system, like haploid cells.
The best example of diploid cells is genomes.
Plant types of gymnosperms and angiosperms are diploid. There is a diploid cell vaccine available that is used for rabies virus and also for people whose animals bite.
This vaccine will expose you to a small dose of the virus, which will help your body to develop immunity. Plants also have a diploid phase which is called the sporophyte.
Sperm and ovaries do not come under diploid. They come under haploid.
Main Differences Between Haploid and Diploid
- The process of meiosis forms haploid. On the other hand, diploid is formed by the process of mitosis.
- The chromosome in the haploid has a single set. On the other hand, the chromosome in the diploid has a double batch.
- Examples of haploids are male and female germ cells. On the other hand, examples of diploids are blood and muscle cells.
- The egg type in haploids is unfertilized. On the other hand, the egg type in the diploid is fertilized.
- Haploids are found in male ants. On the other hand, diploid is found mostly in plants.
- Haploid is important for the reproduction system. On the other hand, diploid is important for the growth and development of organisms.
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.