Hitler vs Mussolini – Europe’s Dark Totalitarian Legacy: Difference and Comparison

Totalitarianism is a type of political system where all the political parties are banished from the state, and only individual claims over state and control over private and public life take place.

Totalitariniasim can be called one of the forms of authoritarianism where an individual tries to take authority over all the things in a country. Political power is in the hands of monarchs or dictators, and they have absolute control over mass media.

Every time propaganda is broadcasted to take control over the citizens. Whenever we talk about Totalitarian government, two names always come in history i.e. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini.

Key Takeaways

  1. Hitler and Mussolini were two of the most infamous leaders of the 20th century, known for their fascist and totalitarian ideologies.
  2. Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany, while Mussolini was the leader of Italy’s National Fascist Party.
  3. Hitler’s regime was responsible for the genocide of six million Jews during the Holocaust, while Mussolini’s regime was responsible for numerous war crimes and human rights violations.

Hitler vs Mussolini

Hitler was dictator of Germany responsible for the Holocaust and the deaths of millions during World War II. Mussolini was dictator of Italy and was the principal founder of fascism. Mussolini inspired and supported the international spread of fascist movements during the inter-war period.

Hitler vs Mussolini

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Hitler was a German leader who was born in the year 1889 in Austria. He served in the Bavarian army when he lived in Austria.

He became the head and leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party. Using his aggressive policy, he rose to power.

Hitler was considered a ruthless dictator because he had an obsession with killing the Jews. Hitler was the person who started the second world War. he became the chancellor of Germany in 1933.

One year later, he became the dictator bringing the totalitarian regime. Mussolini was norn in Italy in 1883.

He was a journalist and politician. Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1933, and then he became a dictator. He was the one who is considered the founder of Fascism.

He also created a party named the Nationalist Fascist Party. Mussolini consolidated the whole power of Italy into his own hands, declaring that only one-party rule would be followed in Italy.

In the second world war, he sided with Hitler. Mussolini had a foreign policy to regain the grandeur of the Roman empire and to expand the expansion of Italy all over Europe.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonHitlerMussolini
CitizenshipAustrian, GermanItalian
Political PartyNational Socialist German Workers PartyNationalist Fascist Party
Religious PolicyAnti-Semitism, creating new racial order.Anti-Christian, atheist
WritingsMein KampfThe Doctrine of Fascism
InvasionPolitical manipulation and legislative machinationsExpanding Italian colonies and enforcing Fascism.
Cause of DeathSuicide by gunshotExecution by firing squad

What is Hitler?

Adolf Hitler was raised in Linz. During their initial years, he lived in Vienna. In the 1900s, he moved to Germany. He soon became a decorated officer in the German army.

He was awarded for his service in world war 1. In 1919, Hitler, with the help of co-workers, created a party called the German Workers’ Party.

With his 2000 supporters, Hitler tried to overpower the German government. But he failed in his attempt and was sentenced to prison.

During these five years, he wrote his autobiography Mein Kampf which is a political manifesto. After his release, he tried to gain popularity by discarding the Treaty of Versailles.

He promoted antisemitism, anti-communism and Pan-Germanism views. He became the hero in Germany with his charismatic oratory skill.

As propaganda, Hitler started denouncing capitalism and said that it was all done by Jewish.

hitler scaled

What is Mussolini?

Benito Mussolini was the founder of fascism. Originally he was a journalist at the Avant1 Newspaper.

Mussolini was made a directorate in the Italian socialist Party. But due to his military intervention in world war 1, he was expelled from it.

Soon, he denounced all his views regarding the Italian socialist Party. He started to focus on Italian Nationalism.

When he founded the fascist movement. He opposed egalitarianism.

When Mussolini was appointed as a Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel III, he became the youngest to hold the office.

Secretly, he started overthrowing all the political opposition. With the help of his followers, soon he confiscated all the powers in Italy and transformed it into a dictatorial nation.

Within five years, using all the methods, legal or illegal, Mussolini created a totalitarian state. His foreign policy was to expand the Italian colonies and restore the former glory of the Roman Empire.

Due to this, Mussolini was able to conquer Ethiopia Albania and also intervened in Spain during the Spanish war. In 1940, Mussolini decided to join the side of the Axis.

But soon, Axis power collapsed on multiple fronts. People and his party lose faith in him. He was dismissed from the post of Prime Minister.

benito mussolini

Main Differences Between Hitler and Mussolini – Europe’s Dark Totalitarian Legacy

  1. Hitler was both Austrian and German citizen. Mussolini was an Italian.
  2. Hitler became the leader of the party called the National Socialist German Workers Party. Mussolini started Nationalist Fascist Party.
  3. The religious Policy of Hitler included Anti-Semitism, anti-Communism and, creating new racial order. The religious Policy of Mussolini included atheist and Anti-Christian views.
  4. The most famous book of Adolf Hitler is Mein Kampf. The most famous writing of Benito Mussolini was The Doctrine of Fascism.
  5. Hitler rose to power by invading political manipulation and legislative machinations. Mussolini rose to power by expanding Italian colonies and enforcing Fascism all over Europe.
  6. Hitler followed Nazism. Mussolini followed Fascism.
  7. Hitler committed suicide by gunshot. Mussolini was killed during the firing squad.
Difference Between Hitler and Mussolini – Europes Dark Totalitarian Legacy
  1. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=9Ur1AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT7&dq=+Hitler+and+Mussolini%E2%80%93+Europe%E2%80%99s+Dark+Totalitarian+Legacy&ots=G9zD9vm8Rn&sig=1io4wXqE_jW6x2FXZDv4hKS1QG0
  2. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8cYk_ABfMJIC&oi=fnd&pg=PP9&dq=+Hitler+and+Mussolini%E2%80%93+Europe%E2%80%99s+Dark+Totalitarian+Legacy&ots=0niNVwtbwZ&sig=0OpEEWywBmf7IoB-pi1k75ISjIs

Last Updated : 13 July, 2023

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