Difference Between Hitler and Mussolini – Europe’s Dark Totalitarian Legacy

Totalitarianism is a type of political system where all the political parties are banished from the state, and only individual claims over state and control over private and public life take place.

Totalitariniasim can be called one of the forms of authoritarianism where an individual tries to take authority over all the things in a country. Political power is in the hands of monarchs or dictators, and they have absolute control over mass media.

Every time propaganda is broadcasted to take control over the citizens. Whenever we talk about Totalitarian government, two names always come in history i.e. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini.

Hitler vs Mussolini

The main difference between Hitler and Mussolini was that Hitler was born in Austria and became the dictator in Germany. While Benito Mussolini was a journalist and a politician in Italy who became the dictator of Italy, Adolf Hitler was obsessed with anti-semitism feelings for Jews. He made concentration camps to wipe out the Jews. But Mussolini didn’t have such an obsession with killing Jews. Mussolini gave them refuge in Italy when Hitler ordered persecution for them. Hitler was a political leader, but Mussolini was not. Hitler followed Nazism while Mussolini followed Fascism.

Hitler vs Mussolini

Hitler was a German leader who was born in the year 1889 in Austria. He served in the Bavarian army when he lived in Austria.

He became the head and leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party. Using his aggressive policy, he rose to power.

Hitler was considered a ruthless dictator because he had an obsession with killing the Jews. Hitler was the person who started the second world War. he became the chancellor of Germany in 1933.

One year later, he became the dictator bringing the totalitarian regime. Mussolini was norn in Italy in 1883.

He was a journalist and politician. Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1933, and then he became a dictator. He was the one who is considered the founder of Fascism.

He also created a party named the Nationalist Fascist Party. Mussolini consolidated the whole power of Italy into his own hands, declaring that only one-party rule would be followed in Italy.

In the second world war, he sided with Hitler. Mussolini had a foreign policy to regain the grandeur of the Roman empire and to expand the expansion of Italy all over Europe.

Comparison Table Between Hitler and Mussolini – Europe’s Dark Totalitarian Legacy

Parameters of ComparisonHitlerMussolini
CitizenshipAustrian, GermanItalian
Political PartyNational Socialist German Workers PartyNationalist Fascist Party
Religious PolicyAnti-Semitism, creating new racial order.Anti-Christian, atheist
WritingsMein KampfThe Doctrine of Fascism
InvasionPolitical manipulation and legislative machinationsExpanding Italian colonies and enforcing Fascism.
Cause of DeathSuicide by gunshotExecution by firing squad

What is Hitler?

Adolf Hitler was raised in Linz. During their initial years, he lived in Vienna. In the 1900s, he moved to Germany. He soon became a decorated officer in the German army.

He was awarded for his service in world war 1. In 1919, Hitler, with the help of co-workers, created a party called the German Workers’ Party.

With his 2000 supporters, Hitler tried to overpower the German government. But he failed in his attempt and was sentenced to prison.

During these five years, he wrote his autobiography Mein Kampf which is a political manifesto. After his release, he tried to gain popularity by discarding the Treaty of Versailles.

He promoted antisemitism, anti-communism and Pan-Germanism views. He became the hero in Germany with his charismatic oratory skill.

As propaganda, Hitler started denouncing capitalism and said that it was all done by Jewish.

What is Mussolini?

Benito Mussolini was the founder of fascism. Originally he was a journalist at the Avant1 Newspaper.

Mussolini was made a directorate in the Italian socialist Party. But due to his military intervention in world war 1, he was expelled from it.

Soon, he denounced all his views regarding the Italian socialist Party. He started to focus on Italian Nationalism.

When he founded the fascist movement. He opposed egalitarianism.

When Mussolini was appointed as a Prime Minister by King Victor Emmanuel III, he became the youngest to hold the office.

Secretly, he started overthrowing all the political opposition. With the help of his followers, soon he confiscated all the powers in Italy and transformed it into a dictatorial nation.

Within five years, using all the methods, legal or illegal, Mussolini created a totalitarian state. His foreign policy was to expand the Italian colonies and restore the former glory of the Roman Empire.

Due to this, Mussolini was able to conquer Ethiopia Albania and also intervened in Spain during the Spanish war. In 1940, Mussolini decided to join the side of the Axis.

But soon, Axis power collapsed on multiple fronts. People and his party lose faith in him. He was dismissed from the post of Prime Minister.

Main Differences Between Hitler and Mussolini – Europe’s Dark Totalitarian Legacy

  1. Hitler was both Austrian and German citizen. Mussolini was an Italian.
  2. Hitler became the leader of the party called the National Socialist German Workers Party. Mussolini started Nationalist Fascist Party.
  3. The religious Policy of Hitler included Anti-Semitism, anti-Communism and, creating new racial order. The religious Policy of Mussolini included atheist and Anti-Christian views.
  4. The most famous book of Adolf Hitler is Mein Kampf. The most famous writing of Benito Mussolini was The Doctrine of Fascism.
  5. Hitler rose to power by invading political manipulation and legislative machinations. Mussolini rose to power by expanding Italian colonies and enforcing Fascism all over Europe.
  6. Hitler followed Nazism. Mussolini followed Fascism.
  7. Hitler committed suicide by gunshot. Mussolini was killed during the firing squad.
Difference Between Hitler and Mussolini – Europes Dark Totalitarian Legacy


Both Hitler and Mussolini are known for implementing totalitarian regimes in their countries. Both were on the axis side during the second world war.

Both of them had respect for each other. When both of them decided to collaborate, it was one of the cruellest and most violent imbalances that happened in the world on an international level.

Both were soldiers in World War 1. After the 1st World war, they developed a view that was completely different from Capitalism and socialism.

Both made their party and created a new ideology.

Both became dictators in their own countries. Both rose to power violently, and their end was also very violent.


  1. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=9Ur1AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT7&dq=+Hitler+and+Mussolini%E2%80%93+Europe%E2%80%99s+Dark+Totalitarian+Legacy&ots=G9zD9vm8Rn&sig=1io4wXqE_jW6x2FXZDv4hKS1QG0
  2. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8cYk_ABfMJIC&oi=fnd&pg=PP9&dq=+Hitler+and+Mussolini%E2%80%93+Europe%E2%80%99s+Dark+Totalitarian+Legacy&ots=0niNVwtbwZ&sig=0OpEEWywBmf7IoB-pi1k75ISjIs
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