Difference Between Hybrid and Purebred (With Table)

The Mendel Laws of Inheritance characterize the genetics of an individual. Mendel experimented on the crossover of peas and concluded seven statements for their genetic behavior. This was the origin of Mendel’s Laws of Genetic Inheritance. These state that the different locations on one chromosome may occupy different genes. A gene usually expresses a characteristic that is most likely to be present in the organism.

The degree of similarity between alleles for a trait is known as zygosity. Breeding is the method that uses Mendel’s laws to manipulate the positive qualities or the required attributes in future generations of offspring via the process of mating and to pair up genes.

Hybrid vs Purebred

The difference between hybrid and purebred is that hybrid is a resulting offspring of a cross between two different animals or two different breeds of the same animal. In contrast to that, purebred are offspring of some kind of animals having the genetic similarity.  

Hybrids are animals that are the result of a cross between two animals or two breeds of the same animal. They are the resulting offspring of the two heterozygous parents. The offspring receives their genes from two different parents having different kinds of genes. Hybrids are seen when offspring has two different alleles for a single trait, i.e., heterozygous traits.

Purebred are the animals who have genes belonging to a single gene of parents. They are the resulting offspring of the two homozygous parents and receives their own genes from their homozygous parents. Purebred is only seen when many generations have the same genotype. Animal breeders use the word purebred to describe animals having ancestors of the same breed.

Comparison Table Between Hybrid and Purebred

Parameters of ComparisonHybridPurebred
MeaningHybrid is the resulting offspring of the cross of two heterozygous parents.Purebred is the resulting offspring of the mating between two homozygous parents.
GenotypeDifferent from that of their parents.Similar genes as that of the parents.
PhenotypeDifferent from that of their parents due to the gene cross.Same phenotype as that of parents.
CategoryInter-specific and Intra-specific.Intra-specific only.
ImportanceImprovement in required characteristics by fusing the characteristic allele.Helps in the continuation of the specific species or the specific breed.
ExamplesMules (a cross between horse and donkey).  
Hybrid pea plants will have purple flowers when the alleles are Pp as the dominant trait takes over.  
Kitten, whose parents are both Siamese.  

Purebred pea plants will have white flowers when the alleles are pp as the recessive trait takes over and when bear purple flowers when alleles are PP.

What is Hybrid?

Hybrids are animals that are the resulting offspring of a cross between two animals or two breeds of the same animal. They are supposed to have two heterozygous parents. The offspring always receives their genes from two different parents having different kinds of genes. Hybrids are offspring having two different alleles for a single trait, i.e., heterozygous traits.

Hybrids are organisms that have two different organisms as their parents. This is often done to improve the genetic quality of individuals, whether it be plants or animals. This is also done to induce specific characteristics into the organism. For example, hybrid cows have better milk production and are used in the dairy industry. Many other varieties of hybrids have also been developed. 

Some of them are Mules (offspring of a horse and donkey), yakalos (offspring of yak and buffalo), ligers (offspring of lion and tiger), etc.

There are many types of hybrid. The most common hybrid are those produced by crossbreeding between two species of the same animal. The second type includes a hybrid between the different subspecies such as inter-familial, inter-generic, and intra-specific. 

The third type of hybrids is those that are produced to improvise a certain characteristic or to induce a new characteristic, such as in milk production, wool production, heat tolerance, etc. The third one is mostly used in cases of research and for commercial purposes.

What is Purebred?

Purebred are the animals having genes that belong to parents of similar genetic orientation. They are the resulting offspring of the two homozygous parents and have genes from their homozygous parents. Purebred is only seen when many generations have the same genotype. Purebreds are also referred to as true breeders. Animal breeders use the word purebred to describe animals having ancestors of the same breed.

These are denoted as the true-breeding product where the like species are mated. Purebred have predictable, repeatable, and reliable fundamental characteristics, which are easy to find out by their parents. Purebreds are produced in order to continue the genetic line of that specific animal or plant. As the limited gene pool is becoming a growing concern, the production of purebreds seems necessary in the situation.

The undesirable traits, when present in offspring, may result from the conjugation. Purebred offspring are very susceptible to various types of congenital health issues. Purebreds aim to maintain the existence of the specific genetic pool. One example of a purebred is a Siamese kitten which is the offspring produces when two Siamese cats are mated.

Main Differences Between Hybrid and Purebred

  1. Hybrid is an offspring resulting from the mating of two heterozygous parents, while purebred is an offspring produces by the mating of two homozygous parents.
  2. Hybrid has different phenotypic and genotypic traits from that of their parents, while purebred have similar phenotypic and genotypic traits as that of their parents.
  3. While hybrids are used to improvise characteristics of organisms, purebreds are used to maintain and continue the genetics of the organism.
  4. Hybrids can be both intra-specific and inter-specific, but purebreds are intra-specific.
  5. Purebreds are true breeders, while hybrids are not.

Conclusion

Hybrids are crossbreeds of heterozygous parents, while purebreds are true breeders. They are the result of the mating of two homozygous parents. Both have their own advantages and disadvantages. While the purebreds help continue their lineage, the hybrids help new traits and characteristics emerge. The beneficial ones are usually used for commercial purposes later.

Hybrids have a lot of advantages over purebred as they can be produced according to the characteristic desired, such as disease resistance, heat tolerance, etc. While hybrids are a combination of two distinct elements, purebreds continue to preserve their original identity. A hybrid strain is supposed to be more powerful than a purebred strain due to the hybrid vigor.  

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378432003000654 
  2. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/10/7/1149  
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