Difference Between Hyperparathyroidism and Hyperthyroidism (With Table)

Our body has many organs and glands functioning together. All of them work in coordination with each other to keep their eyes healthy. But, sometimes some organs or glands start functioning in an abnormal manner resulting in diseases.

At present, diseases are wreaking havoc in most households. Several illnesses are found dominant in a particular region. Some illnesses that affect human health these days are hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism. These two are associated with over-secretion in the parathyroid and thyroid glands. These two can affect people at any age and cause discomfort along with several visible symptoms.

Hyperparathyroidism vs Hyperthyroidism

The difference between hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism is because they are over secretions from different glands. In hyperparathyroidism, as its name says, hyper means excessive, and the other words mean secretion from the parathyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism also means the excess secretion from the thyroid gland. Both these diseases are getting quite common at present. Hence, it is essential to know the differences between the various diseases based on some parameters.

Hyperparathyroidism means an excessive secretion from the parathyroid gland. The hormones of the parathyroid glands are called PTH. And these secretions help to balance the level of calcium, as well as that of phosphorus in our body. In this disease, no external changes are visible. In addition to that, a quick medical checkup is necessary if any of these symptoms are visible. 

Hyperthyroidism, as the name says, means excessive secretions of hormones from the thyroid glands. Thyroid glands are the ones present near the neck of human beings. The secretion of these glands includes the thyroid hormones. These hormones regulate the number of calories used up by our body. When the secretion of these hormones is in excess, the condition of hyperthyroidism arises. Several symptoms relating to this condition are also detected. Medications are available for this.

Comparison Table Between Hyperparathyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

Parameters of Comparison HyperparathyroidismHyperthyroidism
Glands involvedThis is caused by the over secretion of excess secretion of the parathyroid gland. It is caused by the excessive secretion of hormones from the thyroid glands.
The original function of glandsPTH glands help to maintain the levels of calcium and phosphorus in our body.They maintain the burn of calories in our bodies. 
SymptomsSymptoms include nephrolithiasis, renal insufficiency, negative bone balance, rhythm disorder in the heart, kidney stones. Symptoms include the increased volume of the thyroid gland, water loss, loss of appetite, diarrhea, menstrual problems. 
External conditionsNo visible swelling can be seen.The thyroid gland swells up and it is visible externally. 
Aftereffect of treatmentNo, after effects are seen.Hyperparathyroidism might occur after treatment.

What is Hyperparathyroidism? 

“Hyper” means large amounts of something. Hence, the term “hyperparathyroidism” means a large quantity of secretion of hormones of the parathyroid gland, which is much more than the appropriate amount. The hormones of the parathyroid glands are called parathyroid hormones. The secretions of these glands help to stabilize the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the human body. 

An excessive amount of secretion of parathyroid hormone causes the calcium to pile up at certain places. It causes symptoms such as renal insufficiency and nephrolithiasis in the kidney. These are the results of the accumulation of calcium in the body and the abnormal functioning of the kidney. The presence of stones in the kidney, increase in blood pressure, the unrhythmic beating of the person’s heart, all of these are the indications and symptoms. 

At present, many tests are available to confirm whether a person has this disease or not. It s because no physical, visible symptoms are present as opposed to hyperthyroidism. The tests which measure the level of vitamin D are the chief tests. If the amount of vitamins is low in the body, it can detect hyperparathyroidism. There are other tests as well. If significant amounts of calcium and parathyroid hormones are detected after a blood test, one can confirm that the person is suffering from the disease.  Urine tests and ultrasound are also helpful to see if stones are present in the kidney and can determine the presence of this disease. 

What is Hyperthyroidism? 

Hyperthyroidism refers to the excessive amount of hormonal secretions from the thyroid glands. Thyroid glands, which are present inside, near the throat of human beings and are lobular structures, secret the thyroid hormones. These hormones control the portion of calories used up by our body.

When these secretions are in large quantities, the situation of hyperthyroidism arises. Many people have a disease called Graves’ disease. The people who have Graves and a noticeable swell at the lower part of their neck can be confirmed to have hyperthyroidism.

As the function of these glands is to control the number of calories burnt in our body, an excess secretion would require more calories must be burnt out. And this leads to weight loss. Another problem associated with it is Grave’s disease that causes eye problems. On the observation of symptoms of hyperthyroidism, we should get it checked.  The sooner the checks are done, the more are the chances of early recovery. Symptoms include a bulge or swelling at the bottom part of the neck (thyroid gland swells), water loss from the body, lack of appetite, diarrhea in some cases, menstrual issues in women, etc. 

The medication for this disease includes Anti thyroid medicines and radioactive iodine (also known as beta-blockers). Women are generally more at risk of hyperthyroidism than males. If detected quickly, it is curable within months.

Main Differences Between Hyperparathyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

  1. In hyperparathyroidism, the number of hormones secreted by the parathyroid glands is much more than usual. However, in hyperparathyroidism, the secretions from the thyroid glands exceed the usual amount. 
  2. In hyperparathyroidism, the original function of the parathyroid glands is to balance the level of Ca (calcium) and P (phosphorus). However, thyroid hormones control the number of calories used up by our body. 
  3. The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism include renal insufficiency, negative bone balance. In some cases, the heart doesn’t beat rhythmically, and kidney stones are also the indications. However, symptoms of hyperthyroidism include water loss, loss of appetite, diarrhea, menstrual problems. 
  4. In hyperparathyroidism, there is no external symptom. In hyperthyroidism, there are externally noticeable symptoms such as Graves and swelling of the neck.
  5. With proper treatment, hyperparathyroidism doesn’t have any after-effects. But if hyperparathyroidism is treated, it may again lead to hyperparathyroidism.

Conclusion

Getting diseased isn’t uncommon. Due to lifestyle changes, change in food quality, many people are suffering from these two diseases. The thing which matters is to identify the symptoms and to go for treatment. There are visible symptoms that can help one identify the disease. The visible symptoms of hyperthyroidism include, renal insufficiency, negative bone balance, heart rhythm is uneven, kidney stones. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism are loss of appetite, water loss, diarrhea, and the most significant symptoms – swelling in the lower part of the throat. 

However, the treatments of these diseases are safe. The process of treatment isn’t long, in the span of a few months. Also, proper lifestyle and diet can help to reduce these diseases to some extent. Hence people should take care of their health and get regular checkups to avoid any illnesses.

References

  1. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0954-6820.1978.tb08406.x
  2. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s004230050245
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