Peptide vs Protein: Difference and Comparison

Peptide and Protein are two almost similar terms but differ a lot in structure. Although they both are made up of chains of amino acids, there’s still a huge difference in their sizes.

Key Takeaways

  1. Peptides comprise a few amino acids, whereas proteins comprise many amino acids.
  2. Peptides play a vital role in various biological processes, such as cell signalling and immune system response, whereas proteins are involved in structural, metabolic, and enzymatic functions.
  3. Peptides can be easily synthesized in the laboratory while synthesizing proteins is more complex.

Peptide vs Protein 

A peptide is a short chain of amino acids connected by peptide bonds. It is used to boost weight loss, aiding muscle recovery and building. Protein is a long chain of amino acids that serves to be one of the three primary macronutrients essential for the body. It is essential in muscle building and weight management.

Peptide vs Protein
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It is used to connect the chain of amino acids through a bond called a peptide bond. The major function is to regulate the activities of another molecule, especially protein. 

Proteins are divided into primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures and consist of a single chain of polypeptides. The main process carried by protein is the formation of important structures in the body, such as muscle, cartilage, hair, etc.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonPeptideProtein
StructureSimpleComplex
Type of chainShorter chain consisting of amino acidsLarger chain of amino acids
AbsorptionEasier for the body in the absorption process because it is smaller in sizeBeing a complex structure it is not that easy to be absorbed
Amino acid typeComprises both essential as well as naturally occurring amino acidsContains twenty amino acids which are called essential amino acids
Type of StructureSomewhat like a straight chain of amino acids, the primary structureIt consists of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure

What is Peptide?

The peptide is a type of molecule which is naturally occurring. It is found in all organisms and carries out a lot of functions. 

Formation of peptide 

  • By transcription of the genetic code’s sequence.
  • mRNA carries the given code for a peptide.
  • The mRNA gives a reading, which is joined together to form a single molecule joined by a peptide bond.

Types of peptide

Amino acids are like letters. As letters join together to form words, in the same way, amino acids can be joined together to form a variety of molecules.

According to Numbers, it is divided into mono, di, tri, and tetra to oxytocin containing nonapeptide, that is, 9 and decapeptide with 10 amino acids, which are angiotensin. 

It is divided into plant peptide, antibiotic peptide, fungal peptide, and vaccine peptide according to function and source. 

Uses of peptides include 

  • Repairing muscles.
  • Some studies suggest that peptides are also helpful in losing weight.
  • Acting as antioxidants.

The skin is made firm and bright. It can be applied to skin both in the morning and night and before applying it to the face, a facial peel should be done.

What is Protein?

Protein is one of those three primary macromolecules needed by our diet. Nowadays, there are various medicine supplement bars to provide extra protein.

It is also known as the backbone of our body because it is the pillar of our body and can be found in every cell of the body. They are made up of long chains of amino acids attached in a simple to complex structure.

Sources – Some of the sources of protein are seafood, whole grains, eggs, beans, and peas which come in legumes. There are also soy products and various nuts and seeds.

According to the Food Development Authority, an adult should take 50gm of protein daily if they are taking a 2000-calorie diet. These proteins are a source of calories.  

Functions of protein 

  • Gives a better vision 
  • Healthy muscles and bones 
  • Growth and development 

Main Differences Between Peptide and Protein

  1. Peptide bonds occur in amino acids, but in the polypeptide chain, whereas peptides are more than 50, there are hydrogen as well as disulfide bonds. 
  2.  Peptides comprise both the essential as well as the naturally occurring amino acids, whereas protein contains only the 20 essential amino acids.
Difference Between Peptide and Protein
References
  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196978110004389
  2. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/cr9900026

Last Updated : 26 August, 2023

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