What is Political Party? | Definition, Working, Pros and Cons

Politics is an integral part of society. In modern society, almost everyone has their political view. Representing a citizen’s political view through an organized manner is called a political party. Therefore, political parties are important for a democratic governing system. Multiple political parties take part in the election process and the party that wins the election majority of votes get the opportunity to form a government.

Later on, this government makes an important policy change for the nation. By joining a political party, any citizen can contribute to the nation’s politics. Let’s learn how a political party works and what are the advantages & disadvantages associated with it.

How does it work?

The political party is an organized group of people who share the same political ideology. Political parties play a crucial role in the government and help to form various policies for the public. They are essential for a democratic governing system. For example, the United States of America has two political parties. These are the Republican Party and the Democratic Party.

At the time of the election, these political parties contest with each other. A party win with the majority of votes gets the chance to govern the nation. The party win with the majority is called the ruling party. Similarly, the party that loses in the election is called the opposition party. Every party has a unique symbol. As an example, the symbol of the Republican Party in America is an elephant. On the other hand, the symbol of the Democratic Party in America is a donkey.

Political parties often work as a mediator between civil society and the government. They gather the virtue of the people and turn them into laws. These political parties can mobilize citizens to put pressure on the government to change any political decisions. Even though different political parties hold different political ideologies, but they work together in the legislative assembly for the law-making process.

Advantages of Political Party

Political parties provide multiple advantages to citizens. All political parties encourage citizens to take part in politics. Anyone can join any political party and express his point of view freely. These parties also uphold the checks and balances of the government. Political parties prevent crony capitalism and prevent the domination of certain individuals and companies. They also encourage the government to uphold the constitution. Most political parties also pursue the government to legislate more people-friendly policies. They also share information about future legislation and its impact on society.

Disadvantages of Political Party

Political parties can also create multiple problems for society and hinder the growth rate of any nation. The biggest disadvantage of political parties is that they create polarisation among the common public. It may create further fragmentation in society. In certain situations, these political parties can also be abusive. Even though political parties check and balance the government, but they also patronize their party members. For this reason, many political party members invite corruption. Political parties also encourage group activity and ignore an individual’s point of view.


  1. https://academic.oup.com/poq/article-abstract/15/4/601/1923108
  2. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1532673×11420420
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