Hardness tests are used to check the hardness of a material. A hardness test is done with the help of a machine called the hardness tester.
Many types of hardness testers are available. It is done by penetrating the material being tested with a material that is harder than the sampling material.
Hardness tests help to decide the resistance of a material to deformations. Brinell and Rockwell hardness tests are the most common hardness tests used.
- Brinell hardness testing uses a spherical indenter and measures the size of the indentation, which is suitable for testing large samples and rough surfaces.
- Rockwell hardness testing uses a diamond cone or steel ball indenter and measures the depth of the indentation, which is suitable for small samples and smooth surfaces.
- Rockwell hardness testing provides faster results and is less destructive than Brinell hardness testing.
Brinell vs Rockwell Hardness
The Brinell hardness test involves pressing a tungsten carbide ball of a specific diameter into the surface of the material being tested with a predetermined force. The Rockwell hardness test uses a hardened steel ball of a specific size that is pressed Into the material under a specified load.
Brinell hardness is one of the scales by which the level of hardness of a material is measured. The instrument used in this test is called a Brinell indenter.
This scale is used to make indentations on the sample, and then the measured indentation is converted into a value using the Brinell hardness scale.
Rockwell hardness is also a scale to measure the hardness of the material, just like Brinell’s hardness. It also has a specific Rockwell indenter.
This indenter is of a specific size, and a specific amount of force is applied to the sample to form an indentation. The measurements are then converted into Rockwell hardness values.
|Parameters of Comparison||Brinell Hardness||Rockwell Hardness|
|Accuracy||Less accurate||Very accurate|
|Indenter||Spherical Steel ball||Diamond cone and Spherical Steel ball|
|Size of Indenter||10mm||<4mm|
|Duration||30-60 sec||10-15 sec|
|Sensitivity||Sensitive to small imperfections on the surface of the sample||Not very sensitive to imperfections|
|Drawback||Very hard samples cannot be measured||The cone of indenter may be subjected to breakage|
What is Brinell Hardness?
The Brinell hardness machine has an indenter that is 10mm in diameter. The indenter should be a hardened steel ball or a carbamide ball. This spherical ball can be used to exert a load of about 3000kg in the case of a harder material.
However, this load can be decreased when the material tested is softer to avoid extra indentation. Brinell hardness is used to determine the hardness of materials with heterogeneous structures.
The surface of the sample must be prepared before indentation. It should be flat and perfect. Any imperfections can lead to error.
The Brinell hardness tester is easy to handle and portable. The diameter of the incision made with the tester is measured with the help of a simple low-powered microscope.
The Brinell hardness value is obtained by dividing the load applied by the surface area of the indentation. There must be no vibration while measuring because it can influence the value and lead to error.
Brinell hardness tester can be applied to all types of material. The load applied is high compared to other hardness testers. The size of the indenter and load can be adjusted accordingly.
Since Brinell testers use a spherical indenter that exerts pressure evenly, there is only a little chance for the occurrence of error.
What is Rockwell Hardness?
Rockwell hardness method is the universal method for hardness testing. This method has no optical equipment like a microscope to measure the indentation. There are two types of indenters used in this method.
One is a diamond cone, and the other one is a steel ball. The diamond cone is used on very hard samples, which must be above 785 N/mm² hardness.
The steel ball is used for other softer samples. The diameter of the ball must increase, and the load must decrease with the decrease in the hardness of the material. Plastic materials are tested with ball indenters of larger diameters.
This method ignores the errors as it is not very sensitive to the imperfections in the sample. Spherical, cylindrical, or conical-shaped samples can also be measured. It takes less time, and the value is generated automatically.
It has a low test-loading capacity. Aluminium, Soft steel, and Copper alloys are normally tested using this method. However, for untreated steel material, in addition to this method, the Brinell method must also be used.
There are three types of Rockwell hardness methods. They are Rockwell C, Rockwell 15N, and Rockwell B. Rockwell C method uses the diamond indenter.
Main Differences Between Brinell and Rockwell Hardness
- The size of the indenter used in the Brinell test is 10mm. It is a steel ball. Whereas the indenter used in Rockwell hardness is either a diamond cone or a spherical steel ball of less than 4mm diameter.
- In the Brinell hardness, the surface area of the indentation is measured, but Rockwell hardness measures the depth of the indentation made.
- Brinell hardness is used to measure hard materials, while the Rockwell test does not apply to very hard materials.
- The Brinell test has a high loading capacity compared to the Rockwell hardness test, which has a relatively low loading capacity.
- Rockwell hardness is cheap and easy to use than the Brinell test, which is costly as it includes optical instruments like a microscope.
- Value can be readily obtained in Rockwell hardness, and it is also very accurate than Brinell hardness. But, Brinell’s hardness can be subjected to errors.
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.