Difference Between JDBC and Hibernate

Java is a computer language created by James Gosling that is used to create a series of programs for various platforms, including smartphones, PCs, and complex games.

MY SQL, MS SQL, Hypersonic SQL, Oracle, JDBC, and Hibernation are just a few of the databases that can be connected to this server-side language.

JDBC and hibernate are both parts of Java, a high-level programming language.

JDBC (Java database connectivity) is a programming interface that connects built programs to databases to store and safeguard data for later use.

Hibernate is a flexible framework for bridging the gap between applications and databases.

JDBC vs Hibernate

The main difference between JDBC and Hibernate is that JDBC is a platform-independent, Java database, whereas, hibernate is a Java framework that, because it is open-source, makes it easier to connect apps to databases, such as joining programs with JDBC database. Sun Microsystems has released both JDBC and hibernate.

JDBC vs Hibernate

JDBC stands for Java database connectivity being a cross-platform (can be used on various platforms such as Microsoft, Mac) database is responsible for storing data related to the program for future use.

It was created by the firm, Sun Microsystems in 1997 to serve as a database for applications.

Constructing objects is handled by Hibernate, which is based on an open-source framework that anybody can modify.

These objects are used to connect data from various platforms, and the process is known as object-relations mapping. Since this framework eliminates needless coding, the programmer’s workload is reduced.

Comparison Table Between JDBC and Hibernate

Parameters of ComparisonJDBCHibernate
PurposeJDBC, Java database connectivity is the database of java used to bridge developed programs with a database.Hibernate is a framework that provide an open-source platform to connect applications and databases.
LoadingJDBC does not support a delay in loading of resources which is known as the process of lazy loading.In hibernate, lazy loading of objects is possible.
Presentation JDBC’s performance is underwhelming and unsatisfactory.In comparison to JDBC, hibernates presentation is optimum and high.
CacheJDBC partners with relatival databases, such as My SQL, to improve performance.Hibernate employs two types of cache to further improve performance.
CodingTo manage exceptions, the code is written in Try Catch syntax.Hibernate can handle all exceptions on its own.

What is JDBC?

The full name of JDBC is Java database connectivity, as the name implies, it’s a java database to establish a link of application with the database.

In the year 1997, it was declared by Sun Microsystems, an American computer firm. Like My SQL, it can also edit and modify the coding and get the result of queries.

The structure of JDBC consists of three things, applications of java, drivers of java, and databases. The application programming interface (API) is the first component of JDBC.

It is advantageous for clients to understand how their database will be accessible. The purpose of the second part, the JDBC driver is to connect a programmed application to a database by issuing queries.

The third component; the database is vital for keeping data safe from hackers.

Lazy loading( delay in the application’s loading ) is not compatible with JDBC.

The JDBC database is used in combination with other databases such as MY SQL or Oracle to improve its performance and provide sufficient performance to customers.

To control SQL exceptions when coding in JDBC, the syntax of try and catch is there. It has a set of statements to conduct various queries such as add, remove, and update.

What is Hibernate?

Hibernate is a framework of java that is interlinked with a database. The property of hibernate is that the coding done in this software can be edited and modified by both user and developer.

Hibernate was released in the year 2001 under the license of GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) that permits technological companies to utilize this software.

The java application layer, the hibernate framework layer, the backend API layer, and the database layer are the four components of hibernate framework.

The Java application layer facilitates the user’s access to the application. In the second layer, there is a framework that makes program coding simpler and easier.

Programmers can access backend services and databases thanks to the presence of both backend API and database layer.

Loading of a program can be scheduled in hibernation unlike JDBC, which is known as lazy loading or scheduled loading.

There are two levels of caching accessible, the first of which is obligatory and the second of which is optional. These caches exist to improve hibernation speed.

Hibernate can even handle all the exceptions in an application’s coding without the try and catch syntax. Therefore, this syntax is not constructive.

Main Differences Between JDBC and Hibernate

  1. JDBC is a backend data management program created by an American company. However, because it is an open-source platform, hibernate is a framework that assists developers in writing codes to construct programs without difficulty.
  2. In JDBC, no program may be scheduled to load later, whereas hibernate supports the concept of application loading delays.
  3. Because JDBC does not provide good performance, therefore used in collaboration with other databases to achieve optimal results. Hibernated, on the other hand, has a superior performance in comparison.
  4. To manage errors in JDBC, the developer uses (try and catch) coding syntax. Hibernate is responsible for handling all exceptions.
  5. All the transactions in JDBC have to be managed by the developer by running specific instructions in the form of code. While hibernate does not require external transaction management.


JDBC and hibernate are both related to the well-known programming language Java. Java is a programming language for creating static and dynamic programs or applications, regardless of the operating system.

JDBC is a low-performance database similar to other optimal databases, but hibernate is an open-source framework that allows developers to code programs quickly and easily.

Sun Microsystems created JDBC in 1997, and four years later, hibernate was introduced to make the lives of java programmers easier.

When using JDBC, the programmer must include particular codes because JDBC does not handle exceptions or transactions. But this is not an issue with hibernate because it takes care of everything.


  1. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3ra9AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR2&dq=JDBC+and+Hibernate&ots=7OmzX93wbn&sig=WQCauZHvcbTSxFZa4Z6UKk2XaUo

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