Difference Between Error and Exception (With Table)

Exceptions and errors are both Throwable subclasses. They are not, however, the same thing. They have very different causes and consequences. People may often confuse these two terms and use them interchangeably. However, in computer terms, they stand for different situations. Also, they require different handling. As a result, one must recognize and realize the points of distinction between them.

Error vs Exception

The difference between Error and Exception is that the former signals a different kind of fault. This fault usually happens due to a shortage of system resources. Thus the system may not notice these types of problems. On the other hand, exceptions are issues that can arise at both executions and compile time. It is most commonly found in developer-written code. The former is classified as an unchecked exception, while the latter is classified into both checked and unchecked types.

Any issue that becomes the cause of computer malfunctioning arising unexpectedly may be termed as an error. Computers can have both software and hardware faults. There are several different sorts of errors, each with countless variations. To resolve a computer issue, you must first figure out what kind of fault it is and where it came from. An error is a signal that is displayed to the user.

In programming, an exception is an unforeseen occurrence that occurs during the execution of a program and disturbs the execution of its commands, such as erroneous input or a loss of connectivity. The word “exception” is a shorthand for “extraordinary incident. Although there are others, an error is a form of unchecked exception. An exception that occurs both during runtime and compiles time. The most prevalent sorts of computer faults are software errors, which are frequently addressed with software updates or patches. Unchecked exceptions are unplanned events. These unplanned events are not evaluated by the computer during compilation.

Comparison Table Between Error and Exception

Parameters of ComparisonErrorException
TypeIt is a classified exception. But it comes under the unchecked category.It is classified into checked as well as unchecked types.
PackageJava.lang.error is the package that contains the error class.Java.lang.exception is the package that contains the exception class.
RecoveryIt can not be recovered so it is irrecoverable. This is a con of the occurrence of errors.It can be recovered and handled. Hence, it is recoverable. Thus these situations can be rectified.
OccurrenceIt can not occur during the time of compilation, unlike an exception.It occurs both during run time and compiles time, unlike errors.
ExamplesSome instances of this are OutOfMemoryError, IOError.Some instances of this are NullPointerException, SqlException.

What is Error?

An error can be defined as any problem that occurred unexpectedly and caused a computer to malfunction. There are several different sorts of errors. Each of these errors themselves comes with hundreds of variations.

The most prevalent sorts of computer faults are software errors, which are frequently addressed with software updates or patches.

A document name, the sort of issue, and the memory address may be given in a blue screen error message in Windows, for instance. This data is entered into a search engine to look for a solution to the problem. If you don’t see an error message, look for the symptom you’re having. If your computer suddenly shuts down without notice, it’s most likely a hardware issue rather than a software one.

Any issue with hardware inside the system or connected to the computer is referred to as a hardware fault. Although firmware upgrades can help with some hardware issues, the majority of these errors are handled by replacing the faulty hardware.

It is primarily classified as an unchecked exception. Java.lang.error is the package that contains the error class. One can not recover it. So it is irrecoverable. This reason is a con of the occurrence of errors.

What is Exception?

In computers, an exception is an unforeseen occurrence that occurs during the execution of a program and disturbs the flow of its instructions, such as erroneous input or a loss of connectivity. 

Exceptions are a class in Java called java.lang.

The two fundamental subclasses of Exception are IOException and RuntimeException. When the computer compiles a program, verified exceptions occur; for the most part, the program should be capable of recouping from them. These include exceptions such as FileNotFoundException and InvalidInputException. To tackle this problem, exception handling code can be built, allowing the program to continue.

Unchecked exceptions are unplanned events that the computer does not evaluate during compilation; they occur during program execution. They are normally unhandled. A terminal exception is an unchecked exception that cannot be resolved by the application and requires the operating system to close the program and perhaps shut down the entire system. Even though there are others, an error is a form of unchecked exception.

One can not recover an error. Hence, it is irrecoverable. This reason is a con of the occurrence of errors. Thus, these situations can be rectified. It occurs both during runtime and compile-time, unlike errors. Some instances of this are NullPointerException, SqlException.

Main Differences Between Error and Exception

  1. Error is classified as an unchecked exception, while an Exception is classified into checked as well as unchecked types.
  2. Java.lang.error is the package that contains the error class, whereas java.lang.Exception is the package that contains the exception class.
  3. Error can not be recovered, so it is irrecoverable. This is a con of the occurrence of errors. On the other hand, Exceptions can be recovered and handled. Hence, it is recoverable. Thus these situations can be rectified.
  4. An error can not occur during the time of the compilation, unlike an exception that occurs both during runtime and compiles time.
  5. Some instances of Errors are OutOfMemoryError, IOError. Some instances of Exceptions are NullPointerException, SqlException.

Conclusion

Therefore, we can see that both Error and Exception are different situations with different causes and consequences. Both Error and Exception belong to the same subclass. The fundamental distinction between Error and Exception is their features.

Error signals a fault that usually happens due to a shortage of system resources. Error is classified as an unchecked exception, while an Exception is classified into checked as well as unchecked types.

One can not recover an error. Hence, it is irrecoverable. On the other hand, one can recover exceptions, and hence it is recoverable. The most prevalent sorts of computer faults are software errors, which are frequently addressed with software updates or patches. 

Thus, one must consider all these differences between these two terms and not use them interchangeably.

References

  1. https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article-abstract/22/2/260/333894
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6009257/
2D vs 3D x
2D vs 3D