Difference Between Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

A wind turbine is a man-made technology that is used to alter the energy created by the winds into mechanical or electrical energy. These turbines have numerous uses depending on the size of the blades the short blades can be used to power traffic signals, to run boats, etc while the turbines with longer blades can be used for domestic supply, also it is one of the most common renewable resources of energy.

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine vs Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

The main difference between Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is mentioned in their name themselves. The direction of the turbine to work in the case of Horizontal Axis Wind turbine is Horizontal while the direction of the turbine to work in the case of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is vertical. The tower built for generating wind power must be powerful, and the strength of it should be high while the tower of VAWT is quite simple.

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine vs Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine is mainly found near an urban area and generates approximately 100kW energy for residential or daily use purposes. The blade of these wind turbines is placed such accordingly that the direction of the wind and the position of blades appears to be parallel. However, the maintenance of these wind turbines is very difficult but the blades can run even in medium wind conditions.  

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is not many common types of wind turbines that are found but despite this, the energy production is much sufficient for some daily work purposes. The blades in the vertical axis wind turbine are placed accordingly that the direction of the wind and the position of the vertical blades are perpendicular to each other. Also unlike, horizontal axis wind turbine the maintenance of the turbine is easy. 

Comparison Table Between Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Parameters of ComparisonHorizontal Axis Wind TurbineVertical Axis Wind Turbine
Acronym UsedHAWTVAWT
Rotating AxisThe position of the blades towards the wind is parallelThe position of the blades towards the wind is perpendicular
Rotor ShiftsHorizontal directionVertical direction
The face of rotor shiftTowards the windIn any direction
MaintenanceDifficultEasy
Power ConsumptionMoreLess
EfficiencyMoreLess
Used in PlacesA place with the streamlined wind conditionA place with turbulent wind condition
Operating ConditionMedium wind conditionsLow wind conditions

What is Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine?

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines are common turbines that are built-in in large open areas and at a very high point. This is due to the continuous receiving flow of the wind. The wind turbine consists of the blades in such a manner that they appear to be parallel with the direction of the wind. And so the face of the rotor shifts is in the horizontal direction.

The main components comprising the wind turbine are – brakes, hub, blades, nacelle, power transmission system, yaw control, generator, and tower. The noise production is also very low. And these turbines can be operated in medium wind conditions also.

The construction of the tower must be strong and the installation of a single horizontal axis wind turbine is very costly. Also, the reason behind such huge cost involves the complexity in its design where the motor and the gearbox are installed over the top.  

What is Vertical Axis Wind Turbine?

Vertical Axis Wind Turbines are not much the common type of wind turbine used around although they are found in an urban area and produce energy that can be much sufficient for a house to run. The wind turbines can be expressed in the abbreviation called VAWT and are also called the cross-wind axis machines. This is so because of the presence of the blades in the direction of the wind and it appears to be perpendicular which allows the wind to flow from any direction.

The above condition is the biggest flex in the wind turbine as it substitutes the application of the yawing system in the vertical turbine. The support structure, the long tower, and the vertical blades all are the necessary components to build a vertical turbine.

The structure of the tower is very easy to build and is very light in shape. The cost for a single vertical axis wind tower is cheap. And thus it involves very little maintenance quality.  

Main Differences Between Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine and Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

  1. The acronym commonly known for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine is ‘HAWT’ while comparatively, on the other hand, the acronym or abbreviation used in place of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine is ‘VAWT’.
  2. The rotating axis of the horizontal turbine is built in such a way that the wind direction and the position of blades appear to be parallel while comparatively, on the other hand, the rotating axis of the vertical turbine is also built in such a way that the wind direction and the position of the blades appear to be perpendicular in direction. 
  3. The direction of the rotor shifts in the horizontal turbine is the same as its name i.e. horizontal while comparatively, on the other hand, the direction of the rotor shifts in the vertical axis wind turbine is in the vertical direction.
  4. In the horizontal axis wind turbine, the face of the rotor shifts is placed towards the wind direction while comparatively, on the other hand, in the vertical axis wind turbine the face of the rotor shifts are placed in any direction.
  5. The maintenance of the horizontal axis wind turbine is very difficult while comparatively, on the other hand, the maintenance of the vertical turbine is effortless.
  6. The power consumption of horizontal axis wind turbine is more while comparatively, on the other hand, the power composition of the vertical axis wind turbine is to a lesser extent.
  7. The efficiency of the horizontal axis wind turbine is much greater while comparatively, on the other hand, the efficiency of the vertical axis wind turbine is less. 
  8. The horizontal turbine is mainly used in the nearby places where the wind condition is quite streamlined while comparatively, on the other hand, the Vertical turbine is mainly used in nearby places with wind turbulence.
  9. The horizontal axis wind turbine can be operated even in medium wind conditions while comparatively, on the other hand, the vertical turbine can also be operated during the time of low wind flow conditions.  

Conclusion

To summarize the given topic this can be concluded that man has created many machines to improve the basic living style. Also, the decline in continuous non-renewable energies has made the sustainable need shift towards cleaner and greener alternatives. And one such is the use of wind turbines that helps to produce electrical energy through the flow of wind. These turbines are distinguished on a different basis and one such is based on the rotational axis.

Thus, Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) and Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) are obtained to mankind. These turbines have varied are of differences from each other. And few are – the noise production from the HAWT is less, they are quite costlier due to the gear, and motor that is mounted over the top. Also while constructing the tower one must look at the strength. While in contrast, VAWT produces very noise pollution, they are cheaper, and the tower doesn’t require to have motor or gear on top as it can be installed at the bottom.  

References

  1. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/57615726/IJET_-_Vol._7_4.13_pp._74-80-with-cover-page-v2.pdf?Expires=1639402583&Signature=KZ9ShsMIJf3uWGkUcbH34xSOAEWzUr05~QgiV9eg5xmUb~cUJQzjdb7qrlrP1T2sPcIH~2hlO64xtknf9Yctlp71UcH9cMp~wqLEigkTIB1CECgbil2gvf75Gbat1iMmgaHhAk6t8h0ZQxPZdc1GFAe-1xSYL6i316ojahwpynEqENMeMTbGA38sWVM4GE-11JQtC5qzifXPqoadXFasCcHJOdGQYavImPG1wJ4~sXOs3TT-sUy2f9shlRYe0ETZZ4Z8VYvj9wWJdFBCfhjuXpRQTPW4AuxQiW5oYwoAZwjWrhjohgzWnGXTYknvEfy3BRCRfQD4qSlB-1Uiue1Qqg__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960148109003048
  3. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-3182/5/3/035005/meta
  4. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2090447910000134
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