Joint Venture vs Strategic Alliance: Difference and Comparison

Maximizing efficiency and profit is one of the main goals of a business. However, there are many ways in which this can be done.

The most common one is to expand operations by entering a joint venture or strategic alliance. However, there are several differences between the two that should be understood before making any decision.

Key Takeaways

  1. Joint ventures involve creating a separate entity by two or more companies, while strategic alliances are collaborative agreements without forming a new organization.
  2. Joint ventures require higher commitment and shared resources, while strategic alliances allow for more flexibility and independence.
  3. In a joint venture, profits and losses are shared based on ownership percentages, whereas strategic alliances focus on specific projects or objectives without sharing overall business profits and losses.

Joint Venture vs Strategic Alliance

Joint ventures are partnerships between two or more companies to pursue a specific project or business opportunity. Each partner contributes resources and shares in the risks and rewards. Strategic alliances are partnerships between two or more companies that share resources, expertise, and intellectual property to achieve common goals.

Joint Venture vs Strategic Alliance

A joint venture is a term used to describe a business entity that is formed by two or more companies. This happens when they combine their resources to achieve a certain goal or objective.

A major characteristic of joint ventures is ‘shared ownership’. In doing so, companies can access new skills and capabilities and open their business to new markets.

Meanwhile, strategic alliances are very similar to joint ventures. However, what makes them different is the fact that the companies remain independent despite working together.

Their main goal is to share resources. An avenue is a form of collaboration or corporation that has benefits such as shared expenses, more profit, shared risks, and even access to new resources.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonJoint VentureShared Alliance
MeaningIt is a business entity formed when to companies get together for financial interests.It is a form of collaboration or corporation between two or more companies that remain independent.
ContractIt is necessary to have an official contract.It is not necessary to have an official contract.
Legal EntityTwo or more companies become one legal entity.The companies involved are separate legal entities even after the alliance.
ManagementThe management in such cases is bilateral.The management in such cases is delegated.
PartnersThe companies involved are non-competitors.The companies involved may be competitors.

What is Joint Venture?

A joint venture is a single entity created by two or more companies coming together. This is done by signing an official agreement or contract, after which the companies involved become one legal entity.

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It is done to enhance the efficiency of working, share risks, share profits, and even access new customers and markets.

However, on forming a joint venture, the risk involved in operations does decrease by a downfold.

The management procedure followed by a joint venture is bilateral. This means all parties involved sign up for equal obligations and responsibilities.

Both sides of the contract agree to take up some objective or work, which may be similar or different depending upon the specific case.

Companies that agree to form a joint venture are non-competitors. In doing so, the parties involved can ensure some benefit in expanding the business.

However, ventures are not always permanent. They may dissolve after the objective is met or the project is completed.

Sometimes, joint ventures even dissolve because of legal and financial issues.

Other reasons include one company acquiring the other, both companies developing new and separate goals, and even the expiration of the time agreed.

joint venture

What is Strategic Alliance?

A strategic alliance is more of a collaboration. There is no official contract or agreement that is necessary. Companies may use this avenue without having legal matters involved.

This is because each of the parties involved remains an independent entity. They only come together to fulfil a specific objective.

The objectives of strategic alliances may involve asset and technology transfer, accessing new markets, or even gaining new knowledge.

Strategies for management for such an operation are delegation. This means that the authority is assigned to a third person, who makes sure that the activities are carried out correctly.

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Companies that form a strategic alliance may or may not be competitors. However, it is very that competitors come together, despite being competitors.

An example of this is a possible strategic alliance between McDonald’s and Pizza Hut. Even though each f them competes in the same market, their target audience is different.

There are many ways in which a strategic alliance may come to an end. A natural end involves the objectives of the alliance being fulfilled.

However, there may even be premature termination in case the alliance breaks up due to financial issues. Another possibility is when one of the parties involved takes acquisition of the other company.

shared alliance

Main Differences Between Joint Venture and Strategic Alliance

  1. A joint venture is a business entity formed when two companies get together for financial interests, whereas a strategic alliance is a form of collaboration or corporation between two or more companies that remain independent.
  2. In the case of joint ventures, it is necessary to have an official contract, whereas in the case of strategic alliances, it is not necessary to have an official contract.
  3. In joint ventures, two or more companies become one legal entity, whereas in strategic alliances, the companies involved are separate legal entities even after the alliance.
  4. The management in joint ventures is bilateral, whereas the management in strategic alliances is delegated.
  5. In joint ventures, the companies involved are non-competitors, whereas in strategic alliances, the companies involved may be competitors.
Difference Between Joint Venture and Strategic Alliance
References
  1. https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/46187/
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199702)18:2%3C127::AID-SMJ859%3E3.0.CO;2-H
  3. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400005

Last Updated : 13 July, 2023

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8 thoughts on “Joint Venture vs Strategic Alliance: Difference and Comparison”

  1. The in-depth information about joint ventures and strategic alliances is very insightful. The explanation of the main differences is excellently presented.

    Reply
  2. The article effectively outlines the key differences and similarities between joint ventures and strategic alliances. The concept of shared ownership in joint ventures is particularly interesting.

    Reply
  3. The comprehensive comparison of the management styles in joint ventures and strategic alliances offers a deep understanding of the topic. Well done.

    Reply
  4. The article effectively brings out the main differences between joint ventures and strategic alliances. The comparison table is particularly useful for understanding the contrasts.

    Reply
  5. The article is a highly informative read on the differentiation between joint ventures and strategic alliances. The explanation of management styles is particularly enlightening.

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  6. A well-written explanation on the topic of joint ventures and strategic alliances. The management procedures discussed provide valuable insight.

    Reply
  7. The comparison table provided is very helpful to understand the distinctions between joint ventures and strategic alliances. Great article!

    Reply
  8. This is a comprehensive and detailed explanation of the differences between joint ventures and strategic alliances. It is well researched and provides useful references.

    Reply

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