Mechanical vs Electromagnetic Wave: Difference and Comparison

For Physics aficionados, the different waves and their characteristics could be crystal clear. Still, for others, the difference between mechanical and electromagnetic waves may not be easy to grasp.

Key Takeaways

  1. Mechanical waves require a medium to travel through, such as air, water, or solid materials, and include sound waves and ocean waves.
  2. Electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum, consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, and include light, radio waves, and X-rays.
  3. The need for a propagating medium distinguishes mechanical waves from electromagnetic waves, which can travel through space.

Mechanical Wave vs Electromagnetic Wave

Mechanical waves are waves which cannot travel without a medium. That’s why these waves’ speed depends on the speed of the medium. Mechanical waves have three types. Electromagnetic waves can travel without any medium. These waves travel at the speed of light. These waves come into existence due to the changing electric and magnetic fields.

Mechanical wave vs Electromagnetic wave

Another stark difference between the two is that the distance travelled by mechanical waves depends upon the medium’s elasticity. In contrast, the characteristics of an electromagnetic wave depend upon acting magnetic and electric fields.

These two types of waves also vary in their speed. A mechanical wave travels much slower than an electrical wave which travels as fast as light.

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Comparison Table

Parameter of ComparisonMechanical WavesElectromagnetic Waves
MediumCannot travel without a mediumCan travel without a medium
Factors affectingElasticity and inertiamagnetic and electric fields
SpeedTravels with the speed of the mediumTravels at the speed of light
TypesTransverse and LongitudinalOnly Transverse
ExamplesSound waves, surface wavesMicrowaves, Radio waves, etc.

 

What is Mechanical Wave?

According to definitions, mechanical waves are waves that result from oscillating matter, and their movement carries the wave forward.

Therefore, a mechanical wave can harbor speed limited to the medium’s speed and can only move in the direction that the medium carries it.

A mechanical wave can be longitudinal, transverse, or surface wave. A longitudinal wave is formed when the particles of the medium oscillate parallel to the forward direction of the wave.

A transverse wave is formed when the particles of the wave vibrate perpendicular to the direction of movement, while a surface wave is formed when the waves move at the interface of two media.

 

What is Electromagnetic Wave?

Electromagnetic waves are the result of accelerating electrically charged particles that, intern affect other particles around them.

An electromagnetic field results from changing electric and magnetic fields whose directions point 90 degrees to each other.

Since electromagnetic radiation consists of no particles and only oscillating electric and magnetic fields, they do not need any medium to propagate. They can thus travel through a vacuum.

In other words, electromagnetic waves are made of photons, uncharged particles that can travel at the speed of light. These waves propagate energy, momentum, and angular momentum away from the source.  

As these photons move away from their parent source, it no longer requires a continuous supply of energy to keep them in motion and thus create the far field.

electromagnetic waves

Main Differences Between Mechanical Wave and Electromagnetic Wave

  1. An example of a mechanical wave is a sound wave. In contrast, microwave, radio waves, infrared, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, Visible light, and gamma rays are examples of electromagnetic waves.
  2. Mechanical waves result from oscillating matter, and their movement carries the wave forward. In contrast, Electromagnetic waves are the result of accelerating electrically charged particles.

References
  1. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adom.201900267
  2. https://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/JOURNALS/GEOTECH/PAGES/GTJ10999J.htm
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