Difference Between Mongolia and China

Country means that which has its territorial area or political control in the region. A country can be larger or smaller depending upon its geographical area. A country can be a sovereign state or may be part of a larger country.


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There are many countries in the world. Each has its own unique culture and characteristics.

If we talk about Asian countries, China and Mongolia are part of it. China is the most populous country in the world. Mongolia is still considered a nomadic country in today’s time.

Mongolia vs China

The difference between Mongolia and China is that Mongolia is located in the Northern Asia region between China and Russia. On the other hand, China is located in Eastern Asia. Mongolia is a landlocked country. While China is connected with seas and bays i.e. Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Korean Bay etc. The climate of Mongolia is continental, depending upon the temperature. The climate of China is diverse, from subarctic to tropical.

Mongolia vs China

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Mongolia is a sovereign country. It is a sparsely populated country in the world. Because of its desert and continental climate, very few people reside in this country. Most of the population of Mongolia resides in its capital i.e. Ulaanbaatar.

It is the largest city in Mongolia. Mongolia is covered with the Gobi desert in the south and steppes and mountains in the north and west. It is a landlocked country and shares its borders with Russia in the north and China in the south.

China is one of the few countries that has an ancient civilization dating back to 1200 BCE. Its civilization was prolific in the Yellow sea region of northern China plain.

China is a populated country in the world. In terms of geographical area, it is the second-largest country in the world. China is an extremely diverse country. Its climate ranges from tropical to subarctic. It has a coastline of 14,500 km.

China is such a humungous country with five-time zones and shares its boundary with 14 countries in the world.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonMongoliaChina
LanguagesMongolianMandarin, English, Tibetan etc.
Ethnic groupsMongols, Kazakhs etc.Han Chinese
ReligionBuddhism, Islam, Shamanism, Christianity etc.Folk religion, Buddhism, Christianity etc.
Physical appearanceDark skinned, Muscular, curvy, voluptuous etc.Fair-skinned, small-framed, slim, short etc.
FoodDairy products and meat.Dumplings, noodles, Rice, tofu, meat etc.
Air QualityFresh airPolluted

What is Mongolia?

Mongolia comes from the word ‘Mongol’, which means river or mountain. In the Latin language, Mongolia means the land of Mongols.

Mongolia became popular and grew stronger in the reign of Genghis Khan, the first ruler of Mongolia. He united all the Mongolic speaking tribes in the 13th century.

The Constitution of Mongolia was adopted officially in 1992. Mongolia is the 18th largest country in the world in terms of its geographical region.

The climate of Mongolia is varied from Gobi dest to cold mountainous region to grassy steppes.

Mongolia is a warm country. Because almost 250 days in a year, it has warm temperature and rest of the year it has cold freezing temperature going up to -30 °C, because of the Siberian winds coming and collecting in the river valley.

Mongolia is called Land of the Eternal Blue sky. Mongolia has very little population. Only 3.3 million people reside there, making it the 121st country in terms of population.

In Mongolia, the largest ethnic group is of Mongols i.e. 95%. Others include Oirats, Buryats, Turkic peoples, Kazakhs and Tuvans. Mongolia follows Buddhism as a religion the most.

It has a semi-presidential democratic republic government. Its judiciary is divided into three structures.

What is China?

China is officially called the People’s Republic of China. It is the most populated country in the world. China is the third or fourth-largest country in terms of area.

It is divided into five time zones, has 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities etc. Its capital is Beijing. Chinese civilization is considered one of the oldest civilizations in the world. It flourished from the 1st century till the 19th century.

China is a communist country having only one party. In terms of GDP, China has become the second-largest economy in the world.

China is the fastest-growing nation. It has become the leading exporter and manufacturer. China is a nuclear country. It has one of the largest militaries in the world. In terms of the defence budget, it comes only after America.

China’s climate has wet monsoons and dry summers. China comes under the biogeographic realms. One is Palearctic, and the other is Indomalayan. China is the third-largest country when it comes to biodiversity.

It is home to many animals, birds, reptiles, mammals, amphibians etc.

China shares its borders with 14 countries. It is an atheist country and practices state atheism. China has special administrative regions i.e. Taiwan and Macau. China is a member of G20, G 8+5, Asian development bank, BRICS, RCEP etc.

In terms of the environment, it is heavily polluted. When it comes to personal freedom and liberties, it ranks lowest on an International level.

Main Differences Between Mongolia and China

  1. Ulaanbaatar is the capital of Mongolia. The language spoken in Mongolia is Mongolian. Beijing is the capital of China. Languages include Mandarin, English, Tibetan etc.
  2. Ethnic groups in Mongolia include Mongols, Oirats, Buryats, Turkic peoples, Kazakhs and Tuvans. In China, the major ethnic group is Han Chinese, Zhuang.
  3. Religion followed in Mongolia is Buddhism, Islam, Shamanism, Christianity etc. Religion followed in China is Folk religion, Buddhism, Christianity etc.
  4. Mongolian people are Dark skinned, Muscular, curvy, voluptuous etc. Chinese people are Fair skinned, small-framed, slim, short etc.
  5. Mongols depend upon dairy products and meat for their food. In China, there are varieties. They love to eat seafood, meat, noodles, rice, dumplings etc.
  6. Mongolia has good air quality and is called the Land of eternal Sky. China is polluted because of industrialization.
  1. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/TC005i007p01073
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169136811000576
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