Difference Between Right-Sided Heart Failure and Left-Sided Heart Failure (With Table)

Among the most important organs, the heart is one of them. Its main role is to pump blood through the body. But what if it becomes unable to pump sufficient blood as the body demands. This condition is known as heart failure. Muscles of the heart become not elastic enough or too weak.     

There are mainly four types of heart failure and different types of treatments and medications are required to treat them. On the side of the heart affected, it can be divided into right-sided heart failure and left-sided heart failure.   

Right-Sided Heart Failure vs Left-Sided Heart Failure   

The main difference between right and left-sided heart failure is that when the heart’s right ventricle no longer pumps sufficient blood to the lungs is known as right-sided heart failure. On the other hand, in left-sided heart failure heart’s left ventricle no longer pumps sufficient blood through the body. In the right-sided heart, failure blood started building up in the veins. Whereas in left-sided heart failure blood started building up in pulmonary veins.    

Right-sided heart failure or right ventricular heart failure is not defined as a disease but a process. It occurs when the right ventricle gets weaken and loses its power to pump blood sufficiently to the rest of the body. Thus, the lung’s fluid is forced back and weakens the right side of the heart. As a result, right-sided heart failure is caused.    

In left-sided heart failure, the muscles on the left side of the heart are diminished and the heart stops pumping. It is also a process, not a disease. Left-sided heart failure occurs when the heart becomes impotent to pump oxygen-rich blood. Mainly to the heart’s left atrium, left ventricle, and body from the lungs.      

Comparison Table Between Right-Sided Heart Failure and Left-Sided Heart Failure   

Parameters of Comparison Right-sided Heart Failure Left-sided Heart Failure  
Interpretation When the heart’s right ventricle is no longer able to pump sufficient blood to the lungs.  When the heart’s left ventricle is too weak to pump sufficient blood through the body.  
Venrticle Right ventricle Left ventricle 
Blood builds up In the veins In the pulmonary veins 
Fluid backflow Into the legs, feet, and abdomen Into the lungs 
Surgeries Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) surgery and heart transplant surgery. Congenital heart defect repair surgery and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). 

What Is Right-Sided Heart Failure?   

Right-sided heart failure occurs when the heart’s right ventricle is no longer able to pump sufficient blood to the lung. Which causes the building up of blood in the veins (blood vessels that back the blood to the heart from tissue and organs). As a result, inside the veins pressure is increased and the fluid is pushed into the surrounding tissue from the veins.    

Right-sided heart failure can be caused due to many reasons such as cocaine use, heavy alcohol use, tobacco use, and coronary artery disease. Men of 50-70 age who suffered from previous heart attacks often experience it. Whereas African-American men can develop right-sided heart failure because they are at higher risk. Heart muscles can also damage due to viral infections.    

Someone can’t prevent the risk factors which are associated with the failure of the right-sided heart. But by taking few steps the risk for this disease can be lower. It can be possible by balancing blood sugar, reducing alcohol intake, managing sleep apnea, maintaining a healthy weight, moderate exercise, and many more.    

To diagnosis right-sided heart failure, the technologies and procedures include Cardiac CT scan, Cardiac Catheterization, Blood tests, Chest X-ray, echocardiogram, coronary angiography, stress testing, myocardial biopsy, and pulmonary function studies. Complications of right-sided heart failure include angina, cardia cachexia, heart attack, liver damage, and atrial fibrillation.   

What is Left-Sided Heart Failure?   

Left-sided heart failure occurs when the heart’s left ventricle is too weak to pump sufficient blood through the body. Which causes the building up of blood in the pulmonary veins (blood vessels getaway blood from the lungs). As a result, coughing or trouble to breathe, shortness of breath -especially during physical activity.    

Left-sided heart failure can be divided into:    

  1. Systolic failure: It occurs when the left ventricle is unable to contract forcefully for sufficient blood circulation throughout the body. As a result, it deprives the supply of blood that is normal.    
  2. Diastolic heart failure: It occurs when the right ventricle grows thicker and the lower-left chamber is unable to fill properly. As a result, bodies pump blood is reduced.    

Underlying health problems can cause left-sided heart failure. But majorly it is caused due to heart-related diseases such as heart attack or coronary artery disease (CAD). Other causes include cardiomyopathy (diseases caused due to hereditary can weaken the heart), obesity, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure. A higher risk of developing left-sided heart failure is in men. Even previous heart attacks can damage heart muscles and its blood pumping ability gets affected.    

Cardiac function can be improved with the help of medications and treating symptoms related to left-sided heart failure. In case, medications are failed to combat left-sided heart failure then doctors are mainly left with surgical options. Devices for implant surgeries include Pacemaker and LVAD (left ventricular assist device) surgery.   

Main Differences Between Right-Sided Heart Failure and Left-Sided Heart Failure   

  1. Signs of right-sided heart failure include fatigue, dizziness, wheezing, sudden weight gain, and fainting. Whereas high blood pressure, chronic coughing, rapid heart rate, and enlarged heart are the signs of left-sided heart failure. 
  2. When it comes to causes, diabetes, sleep apnea and high blood pressure are a few of the causes of right-sided heart failure. While causes of left-sided heart failure include obesity, cardiomyopathy, and heavy alcohol use.    
  3. Risk factors of right-sided heart failure are chronic disease, congenital heart defects, and irregular heartbeats. On the other hand, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and previous heart attack are the risk factors of left-sided heart failure.  
  4. Right-sided heart failure can be prevented by eating a healthy diet, reducing stress, and stop smoking. On the flip side, getting regular checkups, weighing yourself daily, and taking medications can prevent left-sided heart failure.    
  5. In terms of prognosis, for both right and left-sided heart failure, it depends on the cause and symptoms severity. For severe symptoms of right-sided heart failure includes implant of a VAD or heart transplant. Whereas left-sided heart failure consists of implantation of the device and heart repair.   

Conclusion   

So, it can be concluded that both right and left-sided heart failure affect different sides but the result is the same in many terms. Right, and left-sided heart failure is classified into the basis of the affected side of the heart. In both of them, left-sided heart failure is most common.    

In right-sided heart failure, the right ventricle fails to pump sufficient blood to the lungs. It also starts backing flow of fluid into the legs, feet, and abdomen. On the other hand, in left-sided heart failure, the left ventricle fails to pump sufficient blood throughout the body. It also starts backing the flow of fluid into the lungs. Thus, they both just process not a disease.   

References  

  1. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/cir.0000000000000560
  2. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/416605

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