Difference Between Saturated Liquid and Compressed Liquid (With Table)

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Liquids are common while experimenting in chemistry and biology. While there are a large number of them, some of them have been a part of our everyday applications but people often get confused while differentiating one from each other. Two such liquids are saturated liquid and compressed liquid.

Saturated Liquid vs Compressed Liquid

The difference between saturated liquid and compressed liquid is that, in saturated liquid, the intermolecular gaps are filled with excessive amounts of solute whereas a compressed liquid is the one that is compressed in volume by applying external pressure to the liquid.

Saturated Liquid is a solute-rich liquid in which no more solute can be dissolved at that particular temperature as the intermolecular spaces are tightly packed. Saturated liquids are generally thicker in nature as compared to the condition when there is less solute dissolved

Compressed liquid is a liquid that is compressed in volume as the intermolecular spaces are forcefully closed tightly with each other by the effect of applied external pressure. Compressed liquids are either gaseous or liquid in nature.

Comparison Table Between Saturated Liquid and Compressed Liquid

Parameters of ComparisonSaturated LiquidCompressed Liquid
PropertiesNo more solute can be dissolved.Compressed in volume.
PreparationAdding excessive amounts of solute to a liquid.Applying external pressure until the liquid or gas compresses.
NatureIt is either in thick liquid or ordinary liquid form.It is either in liquid or gaseous form.
Temperature DependencySaturation increases with an increase in temperature.Compression decreases with an increase in temperature.
Volatility Not as volatile.Highly volatile.

What is Saturated Liquid?

Saturated liquid is a type of liquid that has excessive amounts of solute to the point where no additional solute can be dissolved in that amount of solvent at that particular temperature. The stage at which no more solute can be dissolved is known as the saturation point of the liquid.

In saturated liquids, the intermolecular spaces are tightly packed due to excessive solute content. However, the intermolecular spaces also depend on temperature. If the temperature of the surroundings is increased, the intermolecular spaces between the molecules loosen up, and as a result, more solute can be dissolved in the same amount of solvent. Therefore, the saturation capacity of a liquid is directly proportional to an increase in temperature.

When more solute is dissolved in a liquid at a high temperature, the resulting liquid can sometimes be thick and translucent when kept at a normal temperature. Furthermore, most saturated liquids are not volatile and can easily be stored.

Saturated liquids do not contribute to real-life applications. Nevertheless, saturated liquids are a major step of many lab experiments, in both chemistry and biology. To perform several experimental procedures, the experimenter needs to change the saturation levels of liquids to balance the dissolution of solutes in liquids.

What is Compressed Liquid?

Compressed liquid is a liquid that is compressed in volume as the intermolecular spaces are forcefully closed tightly with each other by the effect of pressure. A compressed liquid is prepared by applying external pressure to the gas or a liquid that is present at a high temperature.

Since temperature affects the intermolecular force between the molecules, it also affects the compressing capability of substances. As the temperature increases, the intermolecular gaps start to loosen up which results in the expansion of the liquid. As the substance cools down, it compresses again. Therefore, compression of liquid is inversely proportional to an increase in temperature.

Compressed liquids directly result in real-life applications. For example, gas cylinders and deodorants. If a bottle of deodorant is shaken, it seems like the bottle is filled with liquid. But as soon as the deodorant is sprayed, the same liquid comes out in the gaseous form. This is because the deodorant gas is compressed into liquid form and stored in a closed container.

All compressed liquids are highly volatile, which means that they easily catch fire in the open. Due to this, compressed liquids are stored in vessels like glass and aluminum to avoid any external temperature or pressure.

Main Differences Between Saturated Liquid and Compressed Liquid

  1. Saturated liquids have a high imbalance of solute and solvent whereas compressed liquids are balanced.
  2. Saturated liquids are not volatile but compressed liquids are highly volatile and easily catch fire.
  3. Saturated liquids exist in liquid form only whereas compressed liquids can exist in both liquid and gaseous form depending on the pressure.
  4. Saturated liquids are consistent in volume whereas the volume of compressed liquids varies with pressure and temperature.
  5. Saturated liquids don’t have real-life applications as they are only experimented with in labs. On the other hand, gas cylinders and deodorants are direct examples of compressed liquids.

Conclusion

In the studies of chemistry and biology, there are so many types of liquids that resemble some core properties and because of this, people often get confused between them. Following the same pattern, saturated liquids and compressed liquids have a lot to do with intermolecular gaps being tightly packed. However, the two are marginally different.

Saturated liquids solely rely on the amount of solute dissolved at different temperatures. However, the volume of saturated liquids is always constant regardless of the surrounding temperature and pressure. On the other hand, the volume of a compressed liquid varies with respect to its nature, which is either liquid or gaseous. Unlike saturated liquids, compressed liquids don’t have anything to do with the ratio of solute and solvent.

Furthermore, both saturated liquids and compressed liquids depend on temperature but in the opposite way. While the saturation of liquid increases with an increase in temperature, the compression decreases with an increase in temperature.

When we consider real-life applications, there is no direct use for saturated liquids but compressed liquids are pretty useful. Even though compressed liquids are a resource, they must be kept safely in close containers and away from fire as they are highly volatile.

References

  1. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/je60057a006
  2. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.433113

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