A swan and a goose may seem strikingly similar at first sight. Both the water birds are members of the family Anatidae, and the subfamily, Anserinae.
Both have webbed feet that help them thrust forward while swimming. Interestingly, the swan and the goose evolved from ducks approximately 30 million years ago.
Approximately 12 million years ago, swans and geese split off from each other and evolved separately. They further developed subspecies, which their unique physical characteristics can identify.
- Swans have longer necks and more elegant bodies, generally larger than geese.
- Geese are smaller, have shorter necks, and are more aggressive than swans.
- Swans and geese belong to the Anatidae family but differ in appearance, behavior, and species classifications.
Swan vs. Goose
Swans are larger and longer-necked than geese, with striking white feathers and graceful necks. Some species have distinctive orange bills and black face markings. Geese are smaller and shorter-necked than swans, with a variety of feather colors and distinctive honking calls.
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Swans also tend to have longer, thinner necks with a visible S-shaped curve. On the contrary, geese have short and thick necks that are straight.
Although smaller than a swan, a goose typically has longer legs than the latter.
|Parameters of comparison||Swan||Goose|
|Classification||7 species (out of which one is extinct) under the single genus, Cygnus.||22 species under 3 different genera.|
|Size||Larger body length, wingspan, and weight than geese (Bewick’s swan and Tundra swan are exceptions)||Smaller body length, wingspan, and weight than swans (Canada goose is an exception)|
|Appearance||Long and thin necks with a visible S-shaped curve.||Short, thick, and straight necks but longer legs than swans.|
|Color||White or white with some black spots or completely black on rare instances.||Blackish, grey, or brown with white marks on the belly and tail.|
|Habitat||Found mostly in a cold or temperate climate, except in Antarctica.||Only found in Northern Hemisphere, North America, Asia, and Europe.|
|Diet||Aquatic vegetation, mollusks, small fish, frogs, worms, and small grass from land (swans browse for food, more in water than on land)||Grass, stems, roots, leaves, shoots, stems, bulbs, grain, and berries, as well as small insects (geese browse for food, more on land than in water)|
|Population||Between 1.5-1.6 million birds under 7 species||More than 5 million Canadian geese, more than 15 million Snow geese, and approximately 2 million Ross’s geese. 850,000 bean geese, and so on.|
|Predators||Less number of predators due to the large size||More number of predators due to the small size|
|Lifespan||Approximately 20-30 years||10-12 years in the wild and more than 30 years in captivity|
What is Swan?
A swan is a large waterbird with a long thin neck, webbed feet, broad bill, and short legs. It may be fully white in color, white in color with a few black spots, or in rare cases, completely black.
Swans have jagged bill that acts as teeth for catching and eating fish. Swans belong to the Anatidae family under the genus Cygnus.
These birds evolved out of ducks to form 7 species, of which one faced extinction. A species, namely the Coscoroba swan, also exists but is not considered a ‘true swan.’
Swans are generally found in a cold or temperate climate. Several species of these waterfowl are either partly or wholly migratory.
A swan is known to mate for life. These birds are very protective of their nests and show aggressive intraspecific behavior when facing any threat.
Swans have very few predators by dint of their large size. Foxes, coyotes, raccoons, and wolves hunt eggs and sometimes on adults.
What is Goose?
The term ‘goose’ is used for females, while ‘gander’ is for males. Geese are large-bodied waterfowl but have comparatively shorter necks, smaller sizes, and lesser weight than a swan.
They are known to be either blackish, grey, or brown, having small white patches on their belly and tail. They have webbed feet and a short, broad bill.
Like swans, geese are members of the Anatidae and the Anserinae subfamily. They evolved out of ducks to form 22 subspecies under 3 different genera.
Geese are monogamous and mate for life. Unlike swans, geese tend to be very social. Due to their smaller size, they are more prone to be attacked by predators like coyotes, wolves, and large raptors.
Though docile in most cases, these birds can be quite aggressive sometimes. They vibrate their necks and charge toward the enemy when threatened.
Main Differences Between Swan and Goose
- Swans have 7 species under a single genus, while ducks are classified under 3 genera and 22 species.
- Swans are larger in size, weight, and wingspan than the latter. Geese have shorter necks but longer legs than swans.
- Swans are either fully white, white with black spots, or black. Geese are found in either blackish, grey, or brown color.
- Geese are social animals and live in flocks, while swans are less social.
- Swans live for approximately 20-30 years; geese live for 10-12 years in the wild and more than 30 years in captivity.
- Geese have more predators than swans because of their smaller size.
- Swans are considered to be ‘threatened’ animals according to conservation status. On the contrary, the geese population is of ‘least concern.’
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.