We have numerous systems in our bodies that are responsible for a variety of functions to keep us healthy. When it comes to the health of the body, lymph nodes and tumours are both major concerns.
Swelling indicates that our body’s immune system is battling an infection, sickness, insect, or disease, and a tumour is an abnormal layer of tissue.
- Swollen lymph nodes result from infections, inflammation, or immune system reactions.
- Tumors are abnormal growths of cells that can be benign or malignant.
- Medical professionals use diagnostic tests and examinations to differentiate between swollen lymph nodes and tumors.
Swollen Lymph Node vs Tumour
The difference between swollen lymph node and the tumour is that of carcinogenicity(ability to cause cancer). Swollen nodes rarely cause cancer, while malignant tumours (cancerous tumours invading other distant sites) can cause cancer. Although, there are cases where a benign(non-cancerous and grows locally) tumour gets converted into malignant.
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Swollen lymph nodes are seen when glands become enlarged as a response to the infection of one or more nodes in the body while the tumour is the uncontrolled growth of mass that keeps multiplying cells without the death of older cells in the body.
Swollen lymph nodes are soft round bumps that appear like pea or grape, while tumours are mass or lumps of tissues.
Swollen lymph rarely causes cancer, on the other hand, Tumours have the potential to cause cancer. Malignant tumours are fatal. As swelling is said to occur due to infection in lymph they signify the immune system fighting against an infection.
But swollen lymph nodes near lymphatic areas are said to contain cancer. However, hardness, texture, consistency, and if they appear free-floating or connected to other tissues can all be used to distinguish them.
|Parameters of Comparison||Swollen Lymph Node||Tumour|
|Cause||Usually occurring due to autoimmune infections||Abnormality in cell growth & death function|
|Carcinogenicity||Mostly non-cancerous||It may or may not be cancerous|
|Duration of healing||Subsides in 2-4 weeks||It May take up to 18 months|
|Shape & size||Soft round bumps appearing as pea or grape||Appears like a mass or lump of tissue|
|Location||Occurs in lymphatic drainage like armpit, groin, neck||Mostly, occurs in the skin, lungs, breast|
What is Swollen Lymph Node?
Swollen lymph occurs as a response to infection mostly from bacteria or viruses. In the majority of cases, swollen lymph is non-cancerous. Inflammation of lymph nodes is called lymphadenitis.
It may be acute(persisting for a short time) or chronic( persisting for a longer duration).
Common areas one may find swollen lymph nodes are the neck, under the chin, armpit area & in the groin region.
Swollen lymph nodes may present with symptoms like tenderness & pain in the region.
Swelling may be pea-sized or kidney bean-shaped or even larger in lymph nodes.
The size of the swelling depends on the amount of infection. Along with it, other signs & symptoms may include- Runny nose, fever, upper respiratory tract infections, night sweats and hard rapid growing nodes which indicate potential lymphoma or cancer.
When lymph nodes swell throughout the body it may include HIV or immune system disorders like Rheumatoid Arthritis or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus(SLE).
Acute lymph node swelling is usually mild and but occasionally it may be more severe. It may be acutely enlarged and tender. The overlying skin is red and hot.
After the infection is under control, the majority of cases heal completely without leaving any scar. If the inflammation does not subside, acute lymph node swelling may convert into chronic lymph node swelling.
Chronic lymph node swelling, also known as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, is an acute inflammation of local lymph nodes to antigen stimuli including repeated attacks of severe lymphadenitis and lymph from malignant tumours.
What is a Tumour?
A tumour is formed when cells grow & divide more than they should or fail to die when they should. Tumours may either be benign( non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Benign tumours have a localised area of growth i.e. they do not spread to other body parts.
While malignant tumours can spread into other parts of the body via blood & lymphatic systems which is also called neoplasm.
Signs of tumour in the body:
• Unexplained weight loss
• Blood in stools or urine
• Night sweats
• Recurrent nausea
A tumour is further classified as benign and malignant.
- Benign tumours- Benign tumours often compress surrounding tissues. Benign tumours are usually small in size. The rate of growth is slow in benign tumours. Metastasis(the ability to spread to other parts) is absent in these types of tumours. Cell functions are well maintained
Eg- Lipoma(fat), Chondroma (cartilage), osteoma (bone).
- Malignant tumours- In malignant tumours surrounding tissues are usually invaded. Malignant tumours are larger. The rate of growth is rapid in malignant tumours. Metastasis is present in malignant tumours. Cell functions may become lost or may become abnormal.
Eg- Liposarcoma (fat), Chondrosarcoma (Cartilage), Osteosarcoma (bone), Chordoma.
Routes of Metastasis:
Cancers may spread to other sites by following pathways:
- Lymphatic spread (Via lymphatic drainage)
- Haematogenous spread ( Via blood)
- Spread along body cavities (Transcoelomic spread).
Main Differences Between Swollen Lymph Nodes and Tumours
- Swollen lymph nodes get back to normal when infection subsides, while tumours need radiotherapy or chemotherapy to heal. When the tumour does not subside by this surgery is chosen.
- Swollen lymph nodes are a bit tender, whereas tumours that are malignant give rise to somatic pain.
- Swollen lymph nodes are present in areas near lymphatic drainag, wheares Tumours are present mostly on skin, lungs, breasts or genitals.
- Lymph nodes are softer and rounder and Tumour is a mass or lump of tissues comparatively harder.
- Swollen lymph node has less chance of causing cancer but Tumour have a higher chance of causing cancer.
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.