Difference Between Torque and Force (With Table)

Everything in this Universe is held together by the different forces which are acting between them. The gravitational force, centrifugal force, centripetal force, Torque, moment, momentum, and many more works upon each of them. The work we do, how we do, every possible action is possible due to smaller or larger forces between the surfaces.

Torque vs Force

The difference between Torque and Force is that according to the International System of Units, also commonly known as SI unit, the Torque is expressed in Newton-meters (N-m), whereas Force is expressed in Newton (N). Also, Torque is considered to be a pseudovector, while force is said to be a true vector.

Torque is a force that is applied to any object, making it revolve around its axis. The term Torque is donated with the Greek letter ‘τ’, which is spelt as ‘tau’. It is based on the force, the distance between the force and the angle, and the angle upon which it is acting upon.

Force is stated as any action which causes motion in any object. The term is based on the three laws of Newton, along with the mass of the object and the acceleration of the object. The time derivative of the Force is said to be the linear momentum.

Comparison Table Between Torque and Force

Parameters of ComparisonTorqueForce
Definition It is defined as the force when applied on an object that results in the rotation of it on its axis.It is defined as any action which results in the motion of the object.
Type of AccelerationIt shows angular acceleration always.It shows linear acceleration
Formulaτ = F × r × sin θF = m × a
SI Unit Newton-metersNewton
English Measurement Unit Foot-poundPound

What is Torque?

In simple words, Torque is defined as the force acting upon an object, making it revolve around its axis. The meaning and name of the term change according to the field of study as sometimes it is referred to as moment, the moment of force, rotational force, etc. 

The Torque of an object depends upon the force acting over it, the distance between the force and the angle, and the angle on which it acts upon. In mathematical terms, the expression for calculating Torque is as follows – 

τ = F × r × sin θ

where F = the force acting upon the object 

r = the distance between the area of the force acting and the angle 

sin θ = the angle at which force is working upon

τ in the expression is known as ‘tau’ and is a Greek letter word which is used to denote the magnitude of Torque. The SI unit of the Torque is said to be Newton-meters (N-m). 

The time derivative of the Torque is said to be the angular momentum. And is known to be a pseudovector. 

Some examples of Torque based on daily lives are – 

  1. When we enter a room and opens the door using the doorknob, the doorknob is rotated because of the Torque working on it. 
  2. The rotation of a key in a keyhole is also one of the examples. 
  3. Designing levers and combustion engines require a great knowledge of Torque.

What is Force?

Force is defined as an action that brings motion in an object or keeps it in motion. There are many types of forces that can be categorized that are – gravitational force, friction, surface tension, and many more. 

Theoretically, Force can be measured by calculating the mass of the object and the acceleration in which the object is moving continuously or moved. And in mathematical terms, it is expressed as follows – 

F = m × a

Where m = mass of the object 

a = the acceleration of the body 

The SI unit of the Force is said to be the Newton (N), while according to the English Measurement Units, Force is expressed in Pounds.

The time derivative of the Force is said to be the linear momentum. Also, it is known to be the true vector and has a specific direction of it. However, it does not have a size. 

Some examples of Force related to daily lives are –  

  1. Walking 
  2. Kicking a football
  3. Pushing a box

Main Differences Between Torque and Force

  1. Torque is to defined as the force which acts upon an object and allows the same object to revolve around its axis, whereas Force is said to be a type of action done on an object which will ultimately result in the motion. 
  2. Torques show angular acceleration always while Force shows mostly the linear acceleration while acting on an object.
  3. The SI unit in which Torque is expressed is Newton-meters while Force is expressed in Newton.
  4. The English Measurement Units for the Torque and Force are Foot-pound and Pound.
  5. The expression via which Torque is calculated is “F × r × sin θ” whereas the force is expressed by “m × a”. 

Conclusion

Our day-to-day life depends on the forces which act between the surface. Even for the slightest or tiniest work, any type of force will be acting upon it. For example, Plants use cohesive and adhesive forces to transport water molecules within their whole plant body, meaning in leaves, fruit, root, stem. Another example, while walking, the frictional force acts upon the ground and the feet of the person walking.

Torque is said to be a type of force that made the object revolve on its axis, while Force is an action which only helps in the motion of any object. Also, Torque is based on the force at which it acts along with the distance between the forces and on the angle where it is acting upon contrasting to Force it is mainly based upon the mass of the object and the acceleration of the same (along with all the three laws of Newton).

The two can be important factors for any work to be done; therefore, the expression of them to express is Newton-meters and Newton.

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0099239905600350
  2. https://aapt.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1119/1.16260
  3. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/0w3342zg
  4. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00421-002-0638-9

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