Difference Between Dihydropyridine and Non-dihydropyridine

Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are the type of drugs that are prescribed for high blood pressure, hypertension, to treat angina and various other related symptoms.

Calcium channel blockers can be further divided into two main types depending on the type of derivative. The two major types of CCB are dihydropyridine and non-Dihydropyridine.

Dihydropyridine vs Non-Dihydropyridine

The main difference between dihydropyridine and non-dihydropyridine is that dihydropyridine molecules are derived from dihydropyridine compounds while non-dihydropyridine is derived from phenylakylamine and benzothiazepine. The potency of dihydropyridine as a drug of CCB is higher while that of non-Dihydropyridine is comparatively lower.

Dihydropyridine vs Non Dihydropyridine

Dihydropyridine is a type of CCB that is prescribed to treat hypertension, cerebral vasospasm, stabilize angina, reduce vascular resistance, Raynaud’s syndrome, and other related symptoms.

The potency of the drug as a vasodilator is more. The depressive effect is lower.

On the other hand, Non-Dihydropyridine is a type of CCB which is prescribed to treat tachydysrhythmias, hypertension, abnormal rhythm of heart, atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, and other related symptoms.

It is also used in nerve damage by diabetes or kidney diseases. The potency of the drug as a vasodilator is less. The depressive effect is higher.

Comparison Table Between Dihydropyridine and Non-Dihydropyridine

Parameters of Comparison DihydropridineNon-Dihydropyridine
DefinitionDihydropyridine are organic compounds that are derived from dihydropyridineNon-Dihydropyridine are a class of antiarrrhythmic drugs that are derived from phenylakylamine and benzothiazepine
Calcium channel selectivityThe selectivity for vascular calcium channel is of the moderate level The selectivity for vascular calcium channel is of low to intermediate level
Vasodilatory effects High vasodilatory effects Comparatively low vasodilatory effects
Side effects Heartburn, dizziness headache, swelling of the hand, foot, and ankles, flushing or temporary redness, heartburn, lightheadedness, fluctuations in the blood pressure Tiredness, low heart rate or bradycardia, cardiotoxicity, constipation, atrioventricular block, gingival hyperplasia, reduction in contractility of the heart
ExamplesAranidipine, amlodipine, benidipine, barnidipine, azelnidipine, clevidipine Verapamil, fendiline, gallopamil

What is Dihydropyridine?

Dihydropyridine or DHP is referred to as an organic compound. The chemical formula of the compound is CH2(CH=CH)2NH.

The organic compound is mostly used in the manufacture of drugs like drugs for hypertension or L-type calcium channel blockers. The working of the calcium channel blocker is through systemic vascular vasodilation.

The molar mass of the compound is 81.1158 grams per mole. The compound shows a recurring feature because the substituents are present at 2- and 6- positions.

Dihydropyridine is also known as enamines because the compound tends to hydrolyze or tautomerize. The organic compound shows the property of oxidation in most reactions.

Most of the oxidation reactions of dihydropyridine yield a pyridine from the reaction. However, dihydropyridine which occurs naturally and contains and N-alkyl group does not yield pyridine from the oxidation reaction.

The product of such a reaction is an N-alkylpyridinium cation. The PubChem ID of the organic compound is 104822.

The mechanism of dihydropyridine in drugs is to bind and block voltage-gated L-type calcium channels which are present in the smooth muscle cells of the arterial blood vessels.

The opening of such channels is usually in response to some action potential or electrical signal. The drug acts as a potent vasodilator. However, it is not prescribed for patients with ischemic symptoms and nephropathy.

What is Non-Dihydropyridine?

Non-dihydropyridine or non-DHP are organic molecules that belong to the class of antiarrrhythmic drugs and act as calcium channel blockers.

The derivation of the organic compound is from phenylakylamine and benzothiazepine. The drugs of non-dihydropyridine can reduce myocardial oxygen, treat angina, and can also reverse coronary vasospasm.

The selectivity of the drug for the myocardium can reduce heart rate and has fewer effects on the blood vessels.

The vasodilatory effects of non-dihydropyridine are minimal compared to other calcium channel blocker organic compounds. The potency of the drug as a calcium channel blocker is comparatively less.

The drug also has a few cases related to reflex tachycardia, which is common for most other CCB. The depressive effects of non-Dihydropyridine are higher, especially on cardiac conduction and contractility.

Non-Dihydropyridine drugs can be sub-classified into benzothiazepine drugs.

The drugs which are derived from benzothiazepine are often positioned as an intermediate between dihydropyridine and phenylakylamine, as the selectivity for vascular calcium channels lies in an intermediate position.

The drug is most commonly used to reduce arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance.

Apart from the common advantages of CCB, non-Dihydropyridine is also prescribed for diabetic nephropathy and to manage chronic kidney disease.

The drug is also effective in the reduction of cardiac arrhythmias and to reduce proteinuria. The drug also contains a fixed dose of ACE inhibitor which reduces chances of adverse effects and also improves the adherence of the drug.

Main Differences Between Dihydropyridine and Non-Dihydropyridine

  1. Dihydropyridine acts on the vascular arteries for systemic vasodilation as calcium channel blockers while non-Dihydropyridine acts on the myocardium selectively as calcium channel blockers.
  2. Dihydropyridine has less negative inotropic effects while non-Dihydropyridine has comparatively more negative inotropic effects.
  3. Dihydropyridine molecules are derived from dihydropyridine compounds while non-Dihydropyridine is derived from phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine.
  4. Types of dihydropyridine are clevidipine, amlodipine, benidipine, aranidipine, barnidipine, azelnidipine, and others while types of non-Dihydropyridine are verapamil, fendiline, and gallopamil.
  5. Dihydropyridine has high vasodilatory effects while non-Dihydropyridine has comparatively low and minimal vasodilatory effects.
  6. Dihydropyridine causes more reflex tachycardia while non-Dihydropyridine causes less reflex tachycardia.

Conclusion

Calcium channel blockers are referred to as medications that can cause hindrance in the calcium actions movement through the calcium channels.

The use of CCB is extensively to treat hypertension, blood pressure, chest pain, and other related symptoms. CCBs are available in two main types – dihydropyridine and non-Dihydropyridine.

Both types of drugs have distinct differences in parameters like derivatives, uses, types, side effects, potency, mechanism of action, and others.

The patients need to consume the drug only under the guidance and supervision of a specialist or professional. Over-the-counter medication or self-prescription can lead to serious side effects which can be irreversible or even fatal.

References

  1. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-70499-4_24
  2. https://journals.lww.com/jaapa/Fulltext/2012/03000/How_do_dihydropyridine_and_nondihydropyridine_CCBs.2.aspx
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