Difference Between GFP and YFP (With Table)

The deepest portion of a sea or ocean does not get the facility of sunlight even in the daytime. The organisms which reside in the deepest portion of the sea or ocean have the advantage of light in their body by nature. This characteristic in animals is called bioluminescence. This helps them to prey and also sometimes hide from predators. Some also use this as we use a torch. The chemical that helps to create this luminescence is different in every organism. The Aequorea victoria is a jellyfish that poses GFP for bioluminescence. To know more about this protein, here are some differences between GFP and YFP.

GFP vs YFP

The difference Between GFP and YFP is that the GFP is the main protein produces in the jellyfish, and the YFP is the mutated version of YFP. The GFP is Green Fluorescent Protein, and the YFP is a Yellow Fluorescent Protein. They are also different in color, one is green, and the other is yellow. The Yellow fluorescent Protein has higher emission and excitation peaks as compared to the emission and excitation peaks of the Green Fluorescent Protein.

The full form of GFP is Green Fluorescent Protein. It is found in a jellyfish known as Aequorea Victoria. The main characteristic of GFP is that it emits green fluorescent when exposed to blur ultraviolet rays. This protein consists of 238 amino acids. It also has some improved versions, which are mainly used for experiments. These are used for producing new genes in cells and the molecular biology field.

The full form of YFP is Yellow Fluorescent Protein. It is the muted version of the Green Fluorescent Protein found in Aequorea Victoria. This protein emits yellow fluorescence when exposed to blue UV rays. This has three improved versions. Those are Ypet, Citrine, and Venus. This protein is also used for experiments in cells and molecular biology.

Comparison Table Between GFP and YFP

Parameters of ComparisonGFPYFP
Full formGreen Fluorescent ProteinYellow Fluorescent Protein
Derived fromAequorea Victoria which is a type of jellyfishThe genetic mutant of Green Fluorescent Protein          
Excitation peak (wavelength)395 nm515 nm
Emission peak (wavelength)509 nm527 nm
Improved versionssmRS-GFPYpet, Citrine, Venus

What is GFP?

The full form of GFP is Green Fluorescent Protein. It is found in a jellyfish known as Aequorea Victoria. The main characteristic of GFP is that it emits green fluorescent when exposed to blur ultraviolet rays. This protein consists of 238 amino acids. Its molecular mass is 27kD. It also has some improved versions, which are mainly used for experiments.

 This protein has the fluorescence wavelengths of emission type and excitation type. The emission peak is the range at which the ray is emitted, and the excitation peak is when the photons get excited and start to emit the light. The excitation peak is 395nm, and the emission peak is 515nm.

 GFP has major application in the researches of cells and the molecular. This protein is used as a reporter gene by scientists in cells and the molecular. The reporter gene is a type of gene that is attached to another gene that is used for the experiment in sequence and is easily identified with respect to the main gene. This is used as a reporter gene because of its bioluminescence characteristics.

This protein has many other advantages as well. This gene is hereditary, and it also does not react with other genes biologically. So for researches, this gene is mostly preferred.

What is YFP?

The full form of YFP is Yellow Fluorescent Protein. It is the muted version of the Green Fluorescent Protein found in Aequorea Victoria. This protein emits yellow fluorescence when exposed to blue UV rays. This has three improved versions. Those are Ypet, Citrine, and Venus. This protein is also used for experiments in microbiology.

The Yellow Fluorescent Protein is formed after four mutations of the wild variety of Green Fluorescent Protein found in the deep sea jellyfish known as Aequorea Victoria. The main and most important changes of the mutation are the replacement of threonine with another chemical called tyrosine at the position of 203. This change gave birth to the YFP variant. The excitation peak of YFP is 515nm, and the emission peak is 527 nm. Both the peaks are higher with respect to the parent GFP.

The improved versions of the YFP that are Ypet, Citrine, and Venus have some more advantages than their parent protein. Those are that these improved variants have faster maturation, increased luminescence, and reduced sensitivity to chloride with respect to the parent YFP. The YFP is also used in the field of cell and molecular biology. The YFP is mainly used as acceptors for the genetically encoded sensor gens. The Venus variant has a change in the novel amino acid sequence.

Main Differences Between GFP and YFP

  1. The full forms of GFP are Green Fluorescent Protein, whereas YFP is Yellow Fluorescent Protein
  2. The GFP is derived from a jellyfish called Aequorea victoria, while the YFP is the mutant variant of the GFP.
  3. The excitation peak in the wavelength of GFP is 395nm, while that of YFP is 515nm.
  4. The emission peak of GFP in wavelengths is 509nm, whereas that of YFP is 527nm.
  5. The improved versions for facilitating the researches of GFP are smRS-GFP, while that of YFP is Ypet, Citrine, Venus.

Conclusion

These proteins are mainly found in aquatic animals that reside deep under the oceans. These are very important for their survival. The GFP and YFP are just examples of the chemicals found in a jellyfish called Aequorea Victoria. There are infinite numbers of chemicals of these types found in different organisms according to their need for survival.

Nowadays, the genes in their proteins are used for researches and lead to the birth of many new genes from the permutation combination with other genes. Some of these have different advantages that lead to their use in required areas.

References 

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982202004839
  2. https://www.nature.com/articles/nmeth1105-801
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