Regulation of blood sugar levels in one’s body is quite crucial for the healthy and proper functioning of organs, and various hormonal systems. Both high or low blood sugar levels can lead to various complications and cause hindrance to the various functioning of the body. Regulation of blood sugar or glucose is largely done through the endocrine hormones of the pancreas through a negative feedback loop.
Hyperglycemia vs Diabetes
The main difference between hyperglycemia and diabetes is that that hyperglycemia or high blood glucose happens when the body delivers little or negligible amount of insulin which, is the peptide hormone that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, while Diabetes mellitus usually known as diabetes is a medical condition, a gathering of metabolic problems brought about by high glucose levels throughout a significant period.
The hyperglycemic condition occurs when the blood glucose level is more than 125 ml/dL (milligrams per deciliter) when an individual is fasting. Untreated Hyperglycemia for extensive periods can prompt harmed tissues, veins, organs, and nerves.
While, diabetes mellitus, regularly called diabetes, is described by high glucose levels throughout delayed time frames. Untreated diabetes can cause serious health problems like the blood becoming acidic, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or even death.
Comparison Table Between Hyperglycemia and Diabetes
|Parameters of Comparison||Hyperglycemia||Diabetes|
|Cause||Hyperglycemia or high blood glucose or sugar level is caused when there is an excess of glucose in the blood.||Diabetes is caused when the body is not able to produce sufficient are the cells of the body are not being able to utilize the insulin produced properly.|
|Symptoms||Increased blood sugar levels , increased thirst or hunger, fatigue and slow healing.||Increased thirst along with frequent urination, blurry vision and unexplained weight loss|
|Types||Hyperglycemia can be of two types – fasting hypoglycemia and after-meal hyperglycemia.||Diabetes can be of three types – type – 1, Type – 2, and gestational diabetes.|
|Long term effects||Long term effects of hyperglycemia include nerve damage, kidney failure and cardiovascular diseases.||Long term effects of diabetes include stroke, cardiac arrest, renal problems and can also cause eye damage.|
|Methods of treatment||Hyperglycemia can be treated with regular monitoring of blood sugar level and going tests like A1C test and also maintaining proper diet and regular exercise.||Type 1 diabetes can be treated with insulin injections. Type 2 can be treated with regular exercise and healthy diet. Gestational diabetes is generally cured after child birth.|
What is Hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia is also known as high blood sugar. It is a medical condition that has the potential of becoming severe and leading to other complications if it is left untreated. The complications can affect various parts of the body like kidneys, eyes, heart, nerves, and several other parts.
The body breaks down the food and forms sugar molecules which in turn produce glucose. The glucose is absorbed in the bloodstream directly. The extra glucose is often stored in the liver and muscles of the body in glycogen form. People with diabetes generally face hyperglycemia. Lifestyle habits and choices can also lead to the condition.
There are other risk factors also that can contribute to hyperglycemia like not following the diet plan, using insulin that has expired or not properly injecting insulin, not following the diabetes medication, in active lifestyle, other illness, injury, surgery, or infection. Hyperglycemia can cause long-term complications like damage of kidney, nerve, blood vessels of the retina, cardiovascular diseases, ulceration, skin infection, cataract, problem in bone and joint, infection in teeth or gums.
The medical condition can cause emergency complications like diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, heart attack, and others. It can form toxic acids which are known as ketones and can build up in the blood or urine. To keep the blood sugar under a controlled range, patients are advised to follow a strict meal plan with regular insulin or oral diabetes medication, monitor the blood sugar regularly and bring about physical activity in the body.
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is referred to high blood glucose which is also known as blood sugar. The health condition has no cure but can be managed and regulated. Diabetes can be hereditary, lifestyle factors which are sedentary and inactive, overweight or obesity, a combination of several other factors. Food that contains highly processed carbohydrates, saturated and trans fats, sugar-sweetened drinks are the main causes of triggering diabetes.
Diabetes can be of three main types type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes. The other less common types are monogenic diabetes and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not make insulin. The cells of the pancreas that are responsible for making insulin are attacked and destroyed by the immune system of the body containing type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common kind of diabetes. Here, the body does not produce or use insulin. Any age group can be affected by type 2 diabetes. And the other type of diabetes is gestational diabetes which is usually developed in women during their pregnancy period. Women with gestational diabetes develop a probability of type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes can lead to other complications and diseases like kidney disease, heart disease, dental disease, damage of various nerves, problems in the eye or foot, or even stroke. The disease can be a major cause of lower limb amputation or blindness. There has been a rapid increase in premature mortality from diabetes.
Main Differences Between Hyperglycemia and Diabetes
- Hyperglycemia can occur when diabetic patients have an excess of sugar in their bloodstream whereas, diabetes is caused due to lack of insulin or the body’s inability to utilize the insulin produced.
- Hyperglycemia can cause complications and problems like blurry vision, increased thirst, and hunger, and tiredness whereas, diabetes can cause similar problems but more serious like the risk of stroke, cardiac arrest, and even death in extreme cases.
- Hyperglycemia is of two types – fasting and after-meal whereas, diabetes is of three types – type 1, type 2, and gestational.
- Hyperglycemia can sometimes be not harmful and can go undetected without any symptoms whereas, diabetes can cause symptoms like frequent thirst and urination and even renal damage if left untreated.
- Hyperglycemia can generally be cured with proper maintenance of diet plans and proper exercise, whereas diabetes generally needs proper medication in the form of insulin injections for the patient.
Hyperglycemia is a condition that can develop irrespective of the person suffering diabetes and can lead to excessive-high glucose levels in blood sometimes leading to problems and complications like tiredness frequent urination, and blurriness in vision Diabetes is a medical condition in which the body is unable to properly produce or utilize the insulin produced often, leading to hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycemia can be cured with proper diet plans accompanied by regular exercise and insulin regulation. Type 1 diabetes requires proper medical attention in the form of insulin injections for the patient’s bodily activities to function properly.