Quantum Mechanics vs General Relativity: Difference and Comparison

Learning about the universe comes under the branch of physics. But this subject is further divided into many other subjects. Quantum mechanics and general relativity explain further about these concepts.

Studying them will explain the behavior of matter and energy. People who are interested in learning about them should have a great understanding of math concepts. 

Key Takeaways

  1. Quantum mechanics describes the behavior of particles and forces at the atomic and subatomic levels. At the same time, general relativity explains the large-scale behavior of matter and energy in the presence of gravity.
  2. Quantum mechanics is based on probability and uncertainty, while general relativity is a deterministic theory that uses the concept of spacetime.
  3. Quantum mechanics and general relativity currently lack a unified framework, leading to ongoing research in the quest for a theory of quantum gravity.

Quantum Mechanics vs General Relativity

Quantum mechanics deals with the behaviour of subatomic particles and the nature of energy and matter at a microscopic level. General relativity deals with the behaviour of objects on a large scale, such as planets, stars, and galaxies. The two theories are not yet fully compatible with each other.

Quantum Mechanics vs General Relativity

Quantum mechanics explains the working or universe at a smaller scale than atoms. It can also be called a quantum theory or quantum physics.

It is mainly used for the calculation of properties. This is applied to microscopic systems. Some of them are molecules, subatomic particles, and atoms. It is the study of very smaller things. Max Planck is the father of quantum mechanics. 

General relativity is a theory of gravity. Gravity is called a warping or curving of space. The general idea is that an invisible force attracts one object with another object.

If the object is more massive, then it warps more around the space. The behavior of objects in space and time will be explained. Black holes’ existence can also be predicted in general relativity.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonQuantum MechanicsGeneral Relativity
DefinitionIt is a part of physics that explains how things make up atoms work.It is a set of physical and geometric principles and a theory of gravity.
Evolution19251916
Invented byNiels Bohr and Max PlanckAlbert Einstein
AdvantagesIt provides accurate descriptions.It gives the understanding of black holes.
DisadvantagesThe exact location of a particle in space cannot be predicted.It does not respect local energy-momentum.

What is Quantum Mechanics?

It is a branch of mechanics. It deals with the mathematic description of motion, uncertainty principle, incorporates quantization of energy concepts, wave-particle duality, subatomic particles interaction, and correspondence principle.

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It is used for finding the behavior of physical systems. It uses some set of principles for explaining the behavior of matter and energy. Physicists, scientists, and chemists used to have a great interest in quantum mechanics.

These concepts and techniques are essential in many areas of science and technology. It deals with materials sciences, electronic devices, nanotechnology, and photonics. Maths is very important for dealing with quantum mechanics.

People who want to study quantum mechanics should have a strong understanding of complex numbers, differential, and integral equations. It acts as a tool for understanding the theoretical level of the electronic structure.

It also helps in understanding the mechanism, kinetics of chemical reactions, and thermodynamics. But Einstein disliked quantum mechanics. Because he thought everything was certain, these things could be calculated easily.

He rejected quantum mechanics due to its uncertainty factor. It cannot predict the outcome of the future. It can only predict the likelihood of a different outcome.

In the future, it will take over the technologies. It is simply the recognition that there are no particles and waves. 

quantum mechanics

What is General Relativity?

The metric theory of gravitation is called general relativity. It can predict the mercury planet’s behavior in its orbit and light bending because of gravity. It is one of the major building blocks of modern physics.

General relativity was contributed by Albert Einstein. He proved this theory in three different ways. It was developed between 1907 and 1915, along with the contribution of many others. This has been confirmed by many times.

This theory is based on Albert Einstein’s understanding of how gravity affects the space-time fabric. He even published the theory of special relativity, which was established 10 years later. He spent two decades proving these theories.

To understand general relativity, you need to first understand relativity. It is one of the towering achievements of the 20th century. It is exceedingly complex and has many consequences. 

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Another consequence of general relativity is that it will flow at different rates. This is dependent on the strength of the gravitational field. It provides insights into the deep and profound connection between mass and space-time.

It gives insights into the equivalence of inertia and gravitation, time slowing down with gravity, and the structure, origin, and evolution of the universe.

Not only this, but it also provides insights on many other things. It is a geometric theory and uses the mathematics of higher-dimensional topology. 

Main Differences Between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity

  1. The definition of quantum mechanics is that it is a part of physics that explains how things make atoms work. On the other hand, the definition of general relativity is that they are a set of physical and geometric principles along with the theory of gravity.
  2. The evolution of quantum mechanics was in the year 1925. On the other hand, the evolution of general relativity was in the year 1916.
  3. Quantum mechanics was invented by Niels Bohr and Max Planck. On the other hand, General Relativity was invented by Albert Einstein.
  4. The advantage of quantum mechanics is it gives accurate descriptions. On the other hand, the advantage of general relativity is it provides an understanding of black holes.
  5. The disadvantage of quantum mechanics is that it cannot predict the exact location of a particle in space. On the other hand, the disadvantage of general relativity is local energy-momentum is not respected.
References
  1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01225149
  2. https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0303100

Last Updated : 09 July, 2023

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