Difference Between Starch and Cellulose (With Table)

Starch and Cellulose are both identical polymers having the same repeat units. These repeat units are dependent on glucose and are mainly composed of the same glucose and monomer. Though, both Starch and Cellulose have a lot of similar characteristics, they differ from each other in many aspects. 

Starch vs Cellulose 

The difference between Starch and Cellulose is that in Starch, the glucose repeat units are all situated in the same direction, whereas in Cellulose, each glucose unit is rotated by 180 degrees around the polymer chain axis. 

Starch is a glucose polymer where all repeat units are situated in one direction. The units are connected by alpha bonds. Starch is edible because we have enzymes that can break it down into glucose. This is further safely used and can be eaten by human beings. Starch is a carbohydrate, and people get their Starch and carbohydrate mainly from potatoes, wheat, corn.   

Cellulose is a glucose polymer where each successive glucose unit can be rotated around the axis of the backbone polymer chain. These units are connected internally by beta chains. Cellulose is not edible and cannot be consumed by human beings. The human body does have enzymes, but these enzymes cannot break Cellulose into glucose. However, some animals like cows, termites can break them and consume them.   

Comparison Table Between Starch and Cellulose 

Parameters of Comparison Starch Cellulose  
 Definition   A glucose polymer where all repeat units are situated in one direction  Cellulose is a glucose polymer. Here, the successive glucose unit can be rotated by 180 degrees around the polymer chain axis.  
 Consumption  Starch is edible and can be consumed by human beings.  Cellulose cannot be consumed by human beings. It can only be consumed by certain animals like cows and termites.  
 Linkage  Units are linked by Alpha bonds.   Units are linked internally by Beta links.  
 Water-Soluble    Can be dissolved in warm water.  Does not dissolve in water. 
 Strength   Starch is weaker than Cellulose.  Cellulose is a lot stronger than starch.  
 Usage  Starch is mainly used by plants to store energy.  Cellulose is mainly used by plants to support the structure.  
 Digestion  Starch is easily digestible.  Cellulose is difficult to digest.  

What is Starch? 

Starch is a glucose polymer where all repeat units are situated in one direction. The units are connected by alpha bonds. Starch is edible and can be consumed by human beings. This is because, the human body has enzymes that have the capability of breaking down Starch into glucose, which can further be eaten and used safely by human beings.  

Starch is weaker than Cellulose. It can only be dissolved in warm water. Starch is also less crystalline than Cellulose. Starch is easy to digest and is used by plants to store energy.  

Starch is a carbohydrate. People get their supply of Starch and carbohydrates from potatoes, wheat, rice. Starch can also be used in the treatment of paper, like glue, and to thicken sauces. 

What is Cellulose? 

Cellulose is a glucose polymer. Here, the successive glucose unit can be rotated by 180 degrees around the polymer chain axis. These units are connected internally by beta chains. Although some form of Cellulose like the outer shell of corn can be consumed by human beings, Cellulose is not edible. The enzymes in the human body cannot break them into glucose, and they can only be consumed by some animals like cows, termites.  

Cellulose is stronger than Starch. Unlike Starch, Cellulose cannot be dissolved in water. Cellulose can only be broken down into glucose while treating it in acid at high temperatures. Cellulose is more crystalline than Starch. Cellulose is difficult to digest and is used by the plant to support the structure.  

Cellulose mostly has commercial uses like being the main component of paper and fiber, making cellophane and rayon, and many other.   

Main Differences Between Starch and Cellulose 

  1. Starch is a glucose polymer where all repeat units are situated in one direction, whereas Cellulose is a glucose polymer where the glucose units can be rotated by 180 degrees around the polymer chain axis. 
  2. The units in Starch are linked by Alpha bonds, whereas in Cellulose it is linked by Beta links.  
  3. Starch is edible and can be consumed by human beings, whereas Cellulose is not edible and cannot be consumed by human beings. It can only be consumed by certain animals like cows and termites.  
  4. Starch is weaker than Cellulose, whereas Cellulose is a lot stronger than Starch.  
  5. Starch can be dissolved in warm water, whereas Cellulose cannot be dissolved in water.  
  6. Starch is used by plants to store energy, whereas Cellulose is used by plants to support the structure.  
  7. Starch is less crystalline than Cellulose, whereas Cellulose is more crystalline.  
  8. Starch can be obtained from potatoes, wheat and can also be used as glue, whereas Cellulose can only be used for commercial purposes like being the main component in paper and fibre.  

    Conclusion

Starch and Cellulose are both identical polymers having the same repeat units. These repeat units are dependent on glucose and are mainly composed of the same glucose and monomer. Though, both Starch and Cellulose have a lot of similar characteristics, they differ from each other in many aspects.  

Starch is a glucose polymer where all repeat units are situated in one direction. The units are connected by alpha bonds. Starch is edible as the human body has enzymes that have the capability of breaking down Starch into glucose. This is further safely used and can be eaten by human beings. Starch is a carbohydrate, and people get their Starch and carbohydrate mainly from potatoes, wheat, corn.    

Cellulose is a glucose polymer where the glucose unit can be rotated around the polymer chain axis. These units are connected internally by beta chains. Cellulose is not edible and cannot be consumed by human beings. The human body does have enzymes, but these enzymes cannot break Cellulose into glucose. However, some animals like cows, termites can break them and consume them.    

The main point of difference between Starch and Cellulose is that in Starch, the glucose repeat units are all situated in the same direction whereas, in Cellulose, each successive glucose unit is rotated 180 degrees around the polymer backbone chain axis. 

References 

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003267003010705 
  2. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0731684414558325 
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