Difference Between Acid and Base (With Table)

Acids and bases are seen in our daily life. The foods that we eat and the things that we use have either acid or base in them. Even some acids are found in our human body, which will help us in the digestion process. These are studied in depth in chemistry as they deal with chemical components.

A basic of them will be explained at the school level so that we can understand the difference between strong acids and strong bases. 

Acid vs Base

The difference between Acid and Base is that when you dissolve acid in the water, it will provide hydrogen ions. When you place water in the base, it will absorb those hydrogen ions. Acid strength is based on hydronium ions. But the base strength is based on hydroxide ions. Acids have a sour taste. But the base has a bitter taste. 

Acids are found in food and the human body. The acids that are produced in the human body are good for health. There are two important types of acid called organic acids, and the other one is called inorganic acid. Organic acids will have a carbon content in them. Inorganic acids will not have a carbon content in them. If you feel acid excess in your body, then there are some steps available to remove them. 

A base is a chemical compound that will absorb hydrogen ions. The baking soda that we use in our food will come under the base. We can find whether the foods or day-to-day things that we use are basic or not by determining their PH value. Bases have some properties. They always have a bitter taste. They also help in conducting electricity. There are some bases which are really good conductors of electricity.

Comparison Table Between Acid and Base

Parameters of ComparisonAcidBase
DefinitionIt is a chemical compound which when dissolved with water will provide hydrogen ionsIt is an aqueous substance that used to absorb hydrogen ions
StrengthIts strength is based on hydronium ionsIts strength is based on hydroxide ions
PH valueIt is less than 7It is greater than 7
UsesIt can be used as preservatives and in household cleaningIt is used in soaps and detergents
Litmus paper testThe acid will turn blue into red litmus paperThe base will turn red into blue litmus paper

What is Acid?

Acid is a chemical compound. When you dissolve acid in the water, it will give a sour taste. Also, acids will burn some substances that come in contact with them. Acids will donate H+ ions. Acids will be formed when hydrogen ions are released, and the solutions will become acidic. These ions will determine whether they are acid or base. When you dissolve them in water, the balance between ions will be shifted. Acids are also available in the human body for digestion.

Many acids are available inside the human body. There is an acid called battery acid which is very strong as it will give the energy needed for the body. Acids in the body will help in digestion and energy production. Acids are also found in human genes. Acids will be found inside the cells and the digestive system. Acids are also found in natural foods. These acids in the food will also help digestion. There are many strong acids available which, when we come in contact, will affect our human body.

There are also three types of acids available. They are binary acid, oxy acid, and carboxylic acid. These acids will be explained well in chemical form. There are amino acids in the body that will help the proteins in the body. Acids are also used in car batteries. Acids also cause side effects in the human body, such as blood pressure and insomnia. 

What is Base?

The base is a compound that will change the color of indicators. A base will have protons, and, in some cases, it will accept electrons to form a bond. They are the exact opposite of acids. Sometimes the reaction between an acid and base will lead to a neutralization reaction. There are many strong bases available in chemistry with their chemical name itself. Haircare and body care products that we use daily will come under the base.

Because if the shampoo has a PH value greater than 7, then it will affect the condition of the hair. Once the base level exceeds then people will start to feel severe hair problems in their hair. A soap will have a combination of base and acid. But base will be higher in soap, and acid will be less. If we use base completely in soap, then it will not be good for our skin. Maintaining a good PH level is very important. The soap that we use for cleaning should also have the correct combination of base and acid.

If the combination is not correct or if something is added in excess, then the clothes will lose their quality faster. We can see the common examples of the base in our household. The majority of the products that we use in-house will come under the base. A good nucleophile is called a good base. If the blood in our body is greater than 7 and maintains some range, then it will come under the base. It will be evaluated by the doctor by seeing the carbon dioxide and bicarbonate in the blood.

Main Differences Between Acid and Base

  1. Acids are chemical compounds that will provide hydrogen ions when dissolved with water. On the other hand, the base is a chemical compound that will absorb the hydrogen ions.
  2. The strength of the acid is based on hydronium ions. On the other hand, the strength of the ions is based on hydroxide ions.
  3. The PH value in acid is less than 7. On the other hand, the PH value in the base is greater than 7.
  4. Acid can be used as a preservative in food. On the other hand, the base is used in making shampoos and soaps.
  5. When acid is placed in litmus paper, it will turn blue into red color. On the other hand, when the base is placed in litmus paper, it will turn red into blue color. 

Conclusion

Both of them can be understood well with the help of our day-to-day products and the things that we use. When we learn from it, we can understand the difference between the things that come under acid and base. Some string acids are to be handled carefully, or else they will create a strong impact on the human body. Even in labs, acids are handled with gloves.

If we handle them with bare hands, it will damage our skin. In some cases, the skin will be peeled off. These are some serious issues. Also, we should not come in direct contact with the strong acids in the lab. We should not consume while doing experiments in the lab. These are some precautionary steps that should be taken care of while handling them. All these will be mentioned before working in the lab as well. 

References

  1. https://journals.asm.org/doi/abs/10.1128/JB.181.7.2209-2216.1999
  2. https://journals.lww.com/euro-emergencymed/fulltext/2008/04000/correlation_between_acid_base_parameters_measured.6.aspx
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